Archive for the ‘Uncategorised’ Category

Ecumenes and Ecological Islands

Wednesday, November 2nd, 2022

1 Ecumenes: economic units 

The term ecumene comes from the Greek word oikoumene, which means inhabited land or inhabited world. Ecumenes are bounded geographical areas where people have made their permanent home.  Ecumenes contain all work areas occupied and used by the population for agricultural or any other economic purpose. They also include areas or features of special interest protected and managed for purposes of conservation.  They provide opportunities for study or research into social heritage.   The UK town of Grimsby is a good example of an ecumene with dire economic issues (Fig 1). The coastal landscape around it  has been characterised by mudflats and salt marshes.  The town was mentioned in the Domesday Book, when it had a settled, self contained population of just 200 and a priest, a mill and a ferry.  It stands on the creek of a small river which flows into the Humber.  For many years and at the end of the Middle Ages, the town itself was virtually an island with only one road into it from the South. Grimsby’s economy was built on fishing the River Humber and the North Sea   The arrival of the railway in 1848 made it easier to transport goods to and from the port.  Direct rail links to London allowed for fresh ‘Grimsby fish’ to arrive at London’s Billingsgate Fish market and became renowned nationwide. The demand for fish grew to such an extent that at its peak in the 1950s, Grimsby became the largest fishing port in the world.  

Five decades later, Grimsby’s socio economic problems were manifold.  All that remained of the once 700-strong fleet from its 1950s peak were a couple of crabbing boats and maintenance vessels for the offshore wind industry. To this picture of the economic decline of the fishing industry could be added skills shortages, long-term jobless families, deprivation, drugs, homelessness, empty homes, fly-tipping and children in care. The government’s indices of deprivation ranked Grimsby’s East Marsh as the fourth worst place in the UK for employment, the second for crime and the worst for education, skills and training. These statistics highlight a post industrial educational deficit, which is common to developed and developing ecumenes world wide and requires classrooms in nature with a local syllabus, focussed on the concept of ecological islands, that blends prosperity with ecological localism.  

Fig 1 The Grimsby UK ecumene

2  Ecological islands

Nature reserves within ecumenes may be described as ecological islands of high biodiversity in a ‘sea’ of low biodiversity (Fig 2). Nevertheless, whether they are nature sites or urban parks they can form the base of eco learning networks. Such projects reflect current theories of learning including those focusing on the ways people construct understanding of phenomena they encounter in everyday life (constructivism) and those that describe learning as an outcome of interaction with the socio-cultural and bio-physical environment (social learning). Case examples illustrate the myriad of community learning arenas adopting a  culture of gifting in which civil society groups, local government, and volunteers collaboratively engage in environmental stewardship, communicating through learning hubs.  A gift economy, or gift culture, is a system of exchange where valuables are not sold, but rather given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards.

Fig 2 Wink’s Meadow: a local nature reserve

In general, the concept of ecological islands drives the application of conservation management to protect and enhance nature sites within four key interwoven strands of environmental education (SEEs):

  • science-framed education, focussed on the conservation management of biodiversity; 
  • place-based, indigenised and bioregional education; 
  • education for climate change and disaster risk;
  • education for sustainable economic development. 

These strands of knowledge are an outline syllabus of radical hope to deliver a widespread consciousness on the fragility of the environment, which can have a very strong impact on people’s quality of life. There are few places in the world where the need for hope about the sustainable use of Earth’s resources is as acute as in islands.  Islands should therefore be positioned at the centre of education as socioeconomic models of sustainable development and biological evolution.  

The idea of ecumenes provides an overarching, integrative, flexible, humanistic approach for describing and analyzing the inhabited world and its densely populated parts that may be described as big island states.  Small island developing states (SIDS) were first recognized as a distinct group of developing countries at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in June 1992. The Barbados Programme of Action was produced in 1994 to assist the SIDS in their sustainable development efforts.  

3 Eco Learning Networks

The following propositions from David Selby and Fumiyo Kagawa highlight what they think is distinctive and hopeful about environmental education within SIDS as ‘islands for hope’. 

1  environmental education initiatives on islands are markedly eclectic in their rich blending of practice from within the different SEEs. 

2  Environmental education on different islands, especially in the Pacific, is marked by a return to indigenous, community-based learning. 

3 There is a distinctive island pedagogy regarding  the greater weighting given to relational, socio-affective and action-orientated learning about circular economies

4 There is a paucity of inter-island cosmopolitan dialogue.  Questions are asked about how to ensure islanders, steeped in learning about place, can be brought to connect with the global culture of mass consumerism and its environmental impact. 

5 The frequency of cross-curricular, interdisciplinary, even trans-disciplinary framing of environmental education initiatives is identified as bringing a distinctive syllabus and curriculum of hope to island practice. 

These educational propositions reject the idea of an open, ever-expanding economy, which inevitably depletes Earth’s finite natural resources every time we create something, leaving behind waste and toxicity when we dump it or burn it. The hope of education for conservation is that by encouraging a circular way of thinking  we repair and reuse as much as we can, and remanufacture and recycle to save resources, reduce waste, and reduce costs.  

The article, “The Circular Economy Runs Through Basel,” by Paul Hagen, Russ LaMotte, Dacie Meng, discusses the emergence of the Basel Convention as the key international legal system governing anthropological relationships between culture and ecology.  This system is exemplified by the management of toxic waste set out in the Convention’s business plan for 2020-23. With this level of detailed planning and global action  the ISLANDS Green Forum created by the Convention can be a virtual classroom for developing island models to bring cultural ecology to the centre of education at all levels.  The educational aim is for young people to discuss and promote the adoption of a post-2030 circular economy, communicating  ideas and achievements for local environmental sustainability.  An eco-learning network (Fig 3) with this aim can rally and unite young people to make realistic, but dynamic change, creating positive impacts for our planet now.  It supports them by teaching the skills and knowledge needed to benefit and improve planet Earth throughout their lifetimes.  This requires a community development workforce that can support the creation of an inclusive society that encourages individuals to achieve their potential and contribute to  society and their communities. The 2030 objectives therefore are to transform learning for young people and adults by facilitating communities to identify their own needs and aspirations, take action to exert influence on the decisions which affect their lives, improve the quality of their  own lives, the communities in which they live, and societies of which they are a part.

Fig 3  An online community of practice communicating ideas and achievements to  establish an eco learning network for living sustainably

The blue field in Fig 3 represents a small island developing state which has created an online community of practice consisting of schools and the families they serve networking as an eco learning society to produce and apply neighborhood action plans to promote a local closed cycle economy.  People use blogs and the Green Forum to share ideas and achievements.  They work with local governance to keep their activities in line with national initiatives and model local businesses, that have adopted closed cycle practices, as educational resources.

A procedure to develop an eco learning network from a grass roots level can begin with a school and the communities it serves according to the following protocol.  

(i) A School joins Ecoschools International (

(ii) The School links with: 

  • the families in its catchment;
  • the local governance organisation e.g. the parish council;
  • a local business operating, or working towards, a circular economy.

(iii) The School follows  Ecoschool’s 7 steps to an interactive action plan using toolkits, such as those designed for neighbourhood disaster planning, to visualise and meet the plan’s objectives.

(iv) The School communicates its ongoing achievements and ideas to other Ecoschools via blogs and the Green Forum to make the network grow.

To summarise, the educational outcome is to transform learning for young  people and adults by facilitating communities to identify their own needs and aspirations.  They take action to exert influence on local decisions which affect their lives.  These local operations, through a neighbourhood action plan,  improve the quality of their own lives, the lives of communities in which they live and work, and the societies of which they are a part. This plan is created by the local Ecoschool and its community, which regularly monitors its performance indicators.

Go Kandinsky

Wednesday, September 14th, 2022

1  Art That Reveals Hope

Fig 1:Water colour #2.  Wassily Kandinsky, (1911)

In 2011 the Scottish philosopher Alastair McIntosh curated a conference entitled ‘Kandinsky in Govan’. Govan was, and is still, a part of Glasgow that ranks among the most economically deprived areas in Europe.  This was the geographical cultural focus of the conference, to make things better.  Keynote speakers included leading art experts and the Chief Medical Officer for Scotland, The aim was to reveal how art can speak positively in places of poverty today. 

 The conference was hosted by community groups that suffered from high unemployment and many social problems, but which retained a powerful community spirit and much artistic talent.  For example, since 2001 Plantation Productions, a registered charity, has delivered a wide range of arts and media activities and events in the south-west area of Glasgow.  The objective has been to provide  opportunities for people of all ages and backgrounds to benefit from engaging in the creative arts, where access to such services may otherwise be limited.  The projects were aimed at delivering outcome-based programmes to increase the life chances of people facing disadvantage; improve opportunities for families and communities and raise the profile of the area they serve. 

In the long history of Govan ‘Kandinsky in Govan’ could be seen as just another top down, short term, charitable initiative. But its novel aspect was an attempt to embed arts reasoning to express sustainability. The importance of Wassili Kandinsky, (1866-1944), in this process is that he was one of the inventors of abstract art (perhaps more accurately, non-representational or object-free art). In 1911 he produced the first abstract watercolor that concentrated on colors and shapes free from the usual subjects or objects of the outside world (Fig1).  

Kandinsky writes: 

“It has been said… that art is the child of its age. Such an art can only create an artistic future, which is only a child of the age and cannot become a mother of the Future.  She is transitory and to all intent dies the moment the atmosphere alters which nourished her. The other art, that which is capable of educating further, springs equally from contemporary feeling, but is at the same time not only echo and mirror of it, but also has a deep and powerful prophetic strength.”  

The ‘other art’ is abstraction, which he saw as a language that was not only capable of expressing deeper truths but also of communicating them to all the senses.  Abstraction applied arts’ reasoning to help draw forth a more sustainable and humane world.  In particular, Kandinsky viewed non-objective, abstract art as the ideal visual mode and language to express the “inner necessity” of people.  ‘Inner necessity’ is a major principle of art dealing with the foundation of forms and the harmony of colours.  Kandinsky defines it as the principle of the efficient contact of form and colour with the human imagination to embed and convey universal human emotions, ideas and values. He viewed himself as a prophet whose mission was to share this ideal of inner necessity with the world for the betterment of society. He realised he was placing new demands on his viewers, declaring that ‘an evolution in observance was necessary’. This meant the spectator had to take part in the creation of a meaning for the work, almost as if in a mystic ritual. In other words, the role of ‘Kandinsky in Govan’ was to acknowledge and apply abstract art as a social service to build an innovative cluster of learning, research and industry.  The long-term objective was to stimulate  community engagement with the future of Govan starting with the arts, inspiring social change to make it a more attractive place to live, visit and work.  This had to begin with  providing proactive, ‘go to spaces’ for people in areas characterized by poor availability of good work who want to discuss how to build good work which binds communities as one.  In this respect, McIntosh wrote in The Guardian. 

“I hear people yearning for what Kandinsky saw as prophetic art. Art that reveals hope. Art that breathes the flow of life into the veins.”

2 Spiritual Activism

Matt Carmichael and Alastair McIntosh, in their book ‘Spiritual Activism: Leadership As Service’ use the expression ‘spiritual activism’ (2015)  to mean the spiritual underpinning of action for social and ecological justice.

“It is an underpinning, because it is not sufficient to think of spirituality – that which gives life, – as an optional “dimension” or “element”. If activism is not grounded in spirituality it cannot be sustained in the long run: we either burn out or sell out as the oil of life runs low. We need replenishment from the wellheads of life itself. No matter what religious tradition we may or may not be coming from, this re-sourcing is a question of depth psychology and, we argue, ultimately one of spirituality’.

In October 1911 Kandinsky had gathered his ideas to promote spiritual activism in a little book that he called “Über das Geistige in der Kunst” – usually translated as ‘Concerning the Spiritual in Art’. Until the invention of abstraction artists were  concerned with depicting human physicality.  Physicality is a noun that defines the physical body and  the needs to make connect with the body through exercise, meditation, massage, dancing, eating and drinking, or sexuality

Spirituality is a broader concept with room for many perspectives. In general, it includes a sense of connection to something bigger than ourselves, and it typically involves a search for meaning in life. As such, it is a universal human experience, something that touches us all. People often describe their spirituality simply as a deep sense of aliveness and interconnectedness with people and nature.  

Spirituality is a noun. It defines thoughts and beliefs about how we should think, feel, or behave about a particular group of people, an activity, a time, or a place.   It goes with the claim that abstract art frees our brain from the dominance of reality.  Rather than trying to figure out what the painting looks like, just allow yourself to be taken in by it. See what emotions, sensations or memories emerge. Let your eyes relax and travel around the piece without expectation. Examine the colors, forms, materials, surface, and how they interact with each other and produce the third dimension. Take your time. Let the work “speak” to you, enabling it to flow within its inner states.  Create new emotional and cognitive associations, and activate brain-states that are otherwise harder to reach. This process is rewarding as far as it enables the exploration of yet undiscovered inner territories of mental spirituality that generate our values.  

What we value exerts an important influence on our behaviour.  Intrinsic values are those which are inherently rewarding; such as creativity, social justice and connection with nature. Extrinsic values are centered on external approval or rewards; for instance wealth, social status, self image and personal security. We’re each motivated by all these values to some degree and our dominant personal values can change through our lives..

These are just some of the ways in which people can express and cultivate their spirituality where making and viewing abstract art is the catalyst.

  • relate to friends, family, and neighbours in ways that give and receive love, support, kindness, guidance, loyalty, and forgiveness;
  • Express yourself  creatively or artistically (e.g., woodworking or sewing, writing poetry or making music, painting or sculpting);
  • appreciate visual or performing arts (e.g., attending a concert, visiting an art gallery, or going to a movie);
  • read books and engage in conversations about the meaning of life;
  • Pay attention to the movements of your emotional life, the stirrings of the spirit evident in sadness, longing, love, anxiety/fear, anger, joy, pride, hope, and compassion;
  • enjoy the natural world (e.g., gardening or hiking, watching songbirds or sunsets, traveling to scenic places, spending time at a cottage, savoring the first snowfall or spring buds;
  • enjoying comedy and humour (e.g., light-hearted banter in everyday conversation, the capacity to see the joke in life’s discouraging moments, or comedies on the stage or in books or movies);
  • trying to live ethically, by integrating justice and fairness, peace-making, or green practices into their lives.

Love, trust, and forgiveness are important in your search for meaning within relationships. You grow spiritually as you learn to do these things:

  • love and care for yourself, express compassion for others, delight in the natural and human-made worlds, and cherish your place and participation in the web of life;
  • trust your intuitions and conscience, develop trustworthy relationships, trust that meaning can be found in every moment and place of your life, discern whom you can trust, and trust that the universe (or higher entity) is friendly no matter what happens;
  • forgive yourself for failures and wrongdoing, seek justice when you have been abused or wronged, let go of the desire for revenge when you have been hurt, accept that in the big picture you are accepted and valued just as you are.

3 Adaptable Blogging Clusters 

There are currently no real grassroots spaces, institutions or methods to enable  people to talk about their future of work, as individuals looking to change their lives, or as members of a community looking for a sustainable future. This hampers meaningful involvement in the design of work futures and is probably the reason why past top down community initiatives, like the ones in Govan, have failed to take root .   However, we now live in a world driven by social media, there is no escaping it. So ignoring social media’s potential to advance and enhance adaptive bottom up communication is a dangerous oversight. 

This potential can be realised by the formation of blogging communities.  These are groups of bloggers formed around a central idea, commonality or interest.  Such communities exist to help writers connect around shared characteristics and blog topics, offering them a chance to grow together and learn from one another’s experiences.  A suitable mantra is “all failure is failure to adapt, all success is successful adaptation”. 

We are at the beginning of using blogging for social and educational purposes.  Blogs allow others to easily interact and converse in a public setting. They allow Internet users to communicate more easily than most websites, through tools such as comments, trackbacks and social network bookmarking. Interaction is the key to building a successful blogging platform as the go-to places for spiritual activism.  In this connection, the Adaptable Blogging Cluster (ABC) (Fig 2)  has been established on the Google Blogger platform by International Classrooms On Line to exemplify the data  basing logic of  a citizen’s environmental network 

Fig 2 A blogging system using Google Blogger

The ABC  is a group of organisations, families and individuals signed up independently to Google Blogger.  They create free blogs and posts and can invite comments on the posts. It is an adaptive micro learning, tool where people and organisations can upload authored information packages and download selected bite size pieces of content according to their ability level. 

4 Purposes Of An ‘ABC’

An ABC should:

• provide support to those who want to undertake career transitions, working with and promoting adult education and work placement opportunities with skills providers and local businesses. 

• disseminate information about how local and national government shapes the futures of work. This is a precursor to residents effectively engaging in opportunities to shape their collective work future and the architecture and infrastructure that supports it. 

• provide space for community led dialogue about how to build futures of work which match the community. 

• ensure a strong level of youth participation in conversations about the future of work. 

The role of public art reflects a community and its surroundings working to cultivate a cultural identity by setting a community apart and attracting people to its uniqueness. Artwork of any kind helps express a community’s values and creates an elevated sense of awareness for community members and visitors.  The special role of abstract art is to encourage the brain to respond in a less restrictive and stereotypical manner, exploring new associations, activating alternative paths for emotions, and forming new creative links in the brain.   Therefore, abstract art will always remain  popular and current because it is not defined by the artist, the time in which it was created or a subject.  Abstract art is emotionally and aesthetically malleable according to the needs of its makers and viewers.  In other words every community should ‘Go Kandinsky and create a citizen’s environmental network’.(CEN) 

The following three ideas for CENs  could provide the basis for ABC solutions,

(ii) The UK Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP), first published in 1994, proposes a national (CEN) consisting  of  groupings of schools, communities and individuals to celebrate local nature sites.  The Plan suggests that local nature can be protected and promoted in many ways; through the media, tourism and local Government policy. In the longer term it might also reflect the growing interest in building design in harmony with local landscape, materials and traditions. 

The Government’s idea was that a CEN could help mobilize the community and individuals as a collective devoted to local conservation management.   In particular, it could emphasize the role of biodiversity in local culture and foster personal understandings of being at one with nature. The BAP states that Government will continue to work with voluntary bodies, Local Agenda 21, and business and will vigorously promote the schemes for which it is directly responsible. In addition the BAP says that Government will aim to increase awareness of environmental issues, including conserving and enhancing biodiversity, enlisting support and commitment.  These initiatives can take a variety of forms. They may be led in some instances by a local authority, in others by voluntary groups, the Chamber of Commerce, local churches and so on.  The BAP goes on to say that the action taken could include round table discussions of local problems and opportunities, public awareness campaigns and practical projects. 

For England the idea was that the Department of the Environment would select a small number of voluntary groups, institutions, and consultancies and invite them to tender for a commission to act as a central secretariat to this process. The secretariat would build a register of the local initiatives and put people in touch with each other – creating an informal and varied Network.  These schemes did not materialize.

(ii)  After the 1992 Environment Summit thousands of young people from nearly 100 countries worked together summarising the outcome as a book entitled ‘Resque Mission Planet Earth’, lavishly illustrated with their artwork and writings.  In the section called Getting It Together they described their aims and aspirations for a global network of youth Fig 3.

Fig 3 A global democracy of Youth.

They described  their vision as follows

“The first thing to do is to select issues not representatives. That way, we can all choose what we want to talk about, after which the question of who does the talking is less important. The first place to organize is in our schools. Each Rescue Mission will start with a conference where we would decide the issues and elect a small action council to see things get done. Like the children’s councils in France, we will have regular access to local government and work with them, perhaps to organize the Local Agenda 21.

With experience at the local level, we’ll be ready to ask for access to state governments. 

Representatives from all local councils in our state, region or province will take priority issues decided by local conferences and discuss them at a state conference, again, electing a council to see that things get done. This council would work with state governments to make sure things get done. The final goal is to move on to national, continental and international levels – a step-ladder the things that concern you and me can be carried to the highest levels of power. This is the kind of structure we need to make the Rescue Mission work.

The key to it all is keeping in touch with each other. This is hard to do with the language differences, distances, phone bills etc. The solution is to set up a series of Youth Centres around the world, run by young people from different countries. Their job would be to help set up and promote the Action Councils and to keep in touch with each other. The Rescue Mission will be promoted chiefly through the many existing eco-groups, scouts, guides etc. The Youth Centres will simply promote and network their work and success around the world. Children and governments in the rich world must help pay for centres to be set up in developing countries. Young people from rich and poor countries will work together to making each centre like a youth United Nations – a place where anybody can get the information they want on global problems. It would also be a place where local young people can meet, hang out and chat. Working there for 6 months to a year should be an option to replace National Service. Al Gore sees the Rescue Mission as a way of collecting eco-information. Many of us do that already and it would be good to network that information globally. But this structure could do other things, especially help developing countries. If Mr Gore is serious about partnership, we hope that he will sit down and hear our ideas as well.

That means access. Something we’ve never had. Sure we’ve had photo-opportunities: politicians standing surrounded by kids, or kissing babies. Now we need them really to listen to us. The day could be on different days in different countries but once a year, perhaps on the International Day of Peace (3rd Tuesday in September), we would gather all the results and tell the general public what our leaders have said – how far they kept the promises they made to us the previous year.

Who can participate? Anyone under the age of 18. Non-voters. Older people will be welcome as staff and advisers; (remember -Agenda 21 is about making partnerships!) But under 18s will be in control”.

(iii) Postcards are fundamental learning tools for collecting and organizing paper information. Working with a postcard database does not need a computer but there is always an option to integrate it seamlessly into an electronically networked information society.  Indeed, as a basic teaching tool, every postcard has a story to tell about the culture of its maker. Using postcards in class can be a motivating writing task and add a level of stimulation for students. A person sending and receiving postcards at home can quickly build a personal body of knowledge about environmental issues and the skills to tackle them.

Postcards were the first global social network binding the world together with common interests, creating links between people, places, and beliefs. Today they can alert people of all ages about the wonder of creation and the need to bring the climate crisis to the centre of education at all levels for living sustainably.  There are  forums where you can talk in your own language and share information/cards across social and political boundaries about what you are doing, or should do, individually or collectively to make the world a better place.  This means defining social action and active citizenship.

5 Blogging About Social Action & Active Citizenship

Historically, citizenship education has been understood in two ways: as promoting responsible citizens through reflective inquiry, and as active citizenship learned through social action. The responsible citizen approach proposes that schools can prepare students for their civic role by developing their ability to form thoughtful opinions on matters of public policy. Advocates of active citizenship agree that reflective thinking about public matters is important but suggest that students should learn to act on their beliefs. Active citizenship within an ABC challenges students to identify, plan and carry out responsible community actions. Participation in responsible social action is necessary if students are to become participatory citizens. By putting reflective inquiry “to work”, using social media, active citizenship provides students with opportunities to test their ideas and learn about personal efficacy through social action. 

The Bigger Picture

Why Schools Should Teach The Curriculum Of The Future

The Govan Portal

The Grimsby Project

What Does The Brain Tell Us?

Social Action Projects

International Classrooms On Line

A Leap For Wales

Sunday, August 7th, 2022

The logic for making community action plans to change things for the better  Version 1 05/07/2012   

1 Advantages of community engagement  

A national government view  

In 2010, the Social Justice Department of the Welsh Government produced an action plan to  develop a high quality and responsive community development sector in Wales, with a focus  on bringing about change founded on social justice, equality and inclusion. The aim is to  strengthen Wales’s economic performance and transform the life chances of people in Wales.  This requires a community development workforce that can support the creation of an  inclusive society that encourages individuals to achieve their potential and contribute to  society and their communities. The objective therefore is to transform learning for young  people and adults by facilitating communities to identify their own needs and aspirations, take  action to exert influence on the decisions which affect their lives, improve the quality of their  own lives, the communities in which they live, and societies of which they are a part.  

A local government view  

Wrexham Borough Council Leader Aled Roberts has illustrated through a series of examples  how his own local authority had benefited from involving residents in setting up and running  local services. This experience also demonstrated that there is no single model of  neighbourhood regeneration because communities are best placed to decide how it should be  done. Quoted from ‘’Bringing Neighbourhood Centre Stage in Wales; 2008′ 

A community view  

‘Come Outside!’ was a Wales-wide scheme, which enables communities to gain the benefits  that the outdoors has to offer. By addressing community needs and aspirations through  outdoor activities, participation becomes valued and the benefits are sustained. Dave Horton,  Senior Community Development Worker Ely/Caerau, where this scheme was tested in  Cardiff, said:  

 “This project is aimed at uniting the communities of Ely and Caerau and giving people the  confidence to enjoy their local environment.  

“It also offers the local community a chance to learn new conservation skills such as planning  and managing green spaces.”  

A school view  

“Schools should engage with families and the broader community, including businesses, other  statutory agencies and the voluntary sector. Schools also need to work with other agencies to  address the well-being and citizen aspirations of individual learners. When schools work with  other agencies to deliver joined-up programmes, the full range of resources and expertise can  be harnessed to deliver improved learner outcomes and well-being.”  

2 General logic model for community change  

A logic model is a story or picture of how an effort or initiative is supposed to work. The  process of developing the model brings together stakeholders to articulate the goals of the  program and the values that support it, and to identify strategies with desired outcomes of the  initiative. These strategic plans are turned into action plans using an operational planning and  recording system.  

As a means to communicate a program visually, within a coalition or work group and to  present it to external audiences, a logic model provides a common language and reference  point for everyone involved in the initiative.  

A logic model is essential for collaborative community planning, implementing a plan and  evaluating the initiative. It helps stakeholders in the neighbourhood to agree on short-term as  well as long-term objectives during the planning process, decide on activities and actors, and  establish clear criteria for evaluation during the effort. When the initiative ends, it provides a  framework for assessing overall effectiveness of the initiative, as well as the activities,  resources, and external factors that played a role in the outcome.  

To develop a specific model, it will probably be necessary to use both forward and reverse  logic. Working backwards, a start can be made with the desired outcomes and then identify  the strategies and resources leading to projects that will accomplish them. Combining this  with forward logic produces an operational pathway to produce the desired effects (Fig 1).  

Fig 1 General community planning logic

The model will probably be revised. This is precisely one advantage to using a logic model.  because it relates program activities to their effect,. It helps keep stakeholders focused on  achieving outcomes, while it remains flexible and open to finding the best means to enact a  unique story of change. For these reasons it is important to start with a prepared document  template. It is important that this template produced a ‘live’ document that is kept up  to date and does not gather dust on the shelf.  

An understanding of planning logic is necessary for all human activities, from baking a cake  to running a multi-national corporation. The basic procedure for making a community action  plan is to set a measurable objective for a feature of the neighbourhood that raises a local  issue, schedule the work to be done to meet the goal, and report what was actually done.  Monitoring is then carried out to check how close the outcome is to the objective. Plans are  essentially diaries of what to do, what was done, what the outcome was and what remains to  be done. 

Making a start with local ‘green’ issues is good beginning because the increase and  maintenance of local biodiversity is the central principle of sustainable development on all  geographical scales and is closely associated with the establishment of a sense of place. This  could be tidying up waste ground, tree planting etc.  

Sense of place encompasses the meanings that a given place holds for people and the  attachments that people develop for that place. It is expressed when people say they feel good  about where they live.  

There is a broad environmental element, pinpointed by what have come to be known as ‘front  door issues of environmental poverty’ and an economic element (the ‘back kitchen’ issues of  traditional poverty.  

Environmental justice seeks solutions to front door issues of environmental poverty.  These issues are usually defined in the ‘square mile’ where people live, walk and socialise.  

The overall aim of a logic model for making an action plan for community change is therefore  to increase the proportion of people who feel good about their square mile/neighbourhood’.  Success in achieving this objective is measured with simple before and after surveys that can  be done within the community. Valid and reliable surveys for measuring sense of place exist  and have been tested successfully as assessment instruments. These yield outcome  performance indicators of the community action plan.  

Factors influencing community well being are many and varied:  

i Sociability, which includes:  

Number of women, children and elderly  

Social networks  


Evening use of the neighbourhood  

Street life  

ii Uses and activities, which includes:  

Ownership of local business  

Land use patterns  

Property values  

Rent levels  


iii Comfort and image, which includes  


Sanitation rating  

Littering/refuse collection  

Condition of buildings  

Trees, gardens and grass  


Local history/heritage highlights  


Recreation/play areas  

Creative arts groups 

iv Access and linkages, which includes  


Public transport  

Pedestrian and cycling activity  

Condition of roads and pavements  

Parking patterns  

Success in creating a good sense of place depends on bringing many different providers of  expertise and finance together to enable community volunteers to address one or more of  above factors in an action plan. 

“Action plans express the passions people have about their neighbourhood” 

3 Co-production  

Co-production as a system  

A Definitions of co-production  

“On a simple level, co-production is about involving people in the  delivery of public services, helping to change their relationship  with services from dependency to genuinely taking control.” –  Communities in Control, NHS Tayside Health Equity Strategy  

“Co-production means delivering public services in an equal and  reciprocal relationship between professionals, people using services,  their families and their neighbours.” – New Economics Foundation  It recognises and aims to combine and strengthen different kinds of  knowledge and experience, changing the balance of power from the  professional towards the service user.” – Scottish Community  Development Centre  

“I dislike the term co-production…..but absolutely support the  concept. It is about involving people not only in the rowing and the  steering of the boat, but also in actually building it.” – Mr Sandy  Watson OBE DL, Chairman NHS Tayside  

“Co-production is the process of active dialogue and engagement  between people who use services, and those who provide them” – Sir  Harry Burns, Chief Medical Officer for Scotland  

“On a personal level it’s about learning to let go of my control, and  rely instead on my influence, as an equal partner, over the things  which affect the lives of other people.” – Dr Drew Walker, director  of Public Health, NHS Tayside  

‘For me it’s about combining our mutual strengths and capacities so  that we can work with one another on an equal basis to achieve  positive change’ – Fiona Garven, Director, SCDC  

‘…co-design involves many actors with different knowledge and backgrounds who  get together to improve on each other’s ideas and develop something new. In co design, we often use the term ‘rehearsing the future’,”  

B Co-production as a 3-step procedure  

Step 1 Social engagement to exchange ideas and values  

• Gaining insights of the community’s needs  

• Gaining insights of the community’s assets to meet the needs  

Step 2 Technical enablement to reach desired outcomes  

• Setting objectives as desired outcomes and making a plan to gather and  schedule assets to reach these outcomes  

• Review the actual outcomes against the desired outcomes  

Step 3 Modify the plan if necessary  

 4 The LEAP for Wales action plan logic  

LEAP stands for ‘learning, evaluation and planning’, which is the title of a community  framework document designed by the Scottish Community Development Centre (SCDC) to  support a partnership approach to achieving change and improvement in the quality of  community life (Fig 2).  

‘LEAP for Wales’ is a development of the Scottish initiative as a community  planning/recording procedure, which incorporates the feedback logic of the conservation  management system (CMS) software, used by UK Environment Agencies and Wildlife Trusts  to produce conservation management plans for nature sites. Making a community LEAP for  Wales is based on answering the following seven questions (Fig 3).  

1 What are the issues that bug the community?  

(Identifying the need)  

2 What does the community want to see happen?  

(Setting the vision and the specific objectives)  

3 What are the barriers preventing the community getting where it wants to be?  (Determining the limiting factors of the objectives)  

4 How will the team know when they have overcome the barriers?  

(Setting measurable outcomes as performance indicators)  

5 What work has to be done?  

(Scheduling resources and actions)  

6 What progress is being made?  

(Monitoring by measurement of outcome performance indicators)  

7 Who needs to know the outcomes?  

(Feedback reports to the team, partners and funders)  

The SCDC says their LEAP framework should be useful to community organisations; local  authorities; voluntary sector organisations; and policy makers, particularly those involved in  community well being programmes, community planning partnerships, community  regeneration programmes, and social inclusion and social justice initiatives.  

• It encourages critical questioning to ensure that all those with a stake in taking action  for environmental improvements are working to a shared agenda.  

• The LEAP framework emphasises self-evaluation, encouraging participants to take  joint responsibility for planning and evaluation throughout a project or programme.  • It is a learning-based planning and evaluation framework to support good practice in  community working to improve the quality of community life.  

• It helps identify the difference a community hopes to make, to plan more effectively,  work in partnership with each other and other members of the community, and learn  the lessons from the experience.  

• The LEAP framework can be used in different contexts, to support the work of  different sectors, and at project, programme and policy level. It is particularly useful  as a tool to support partnership working and the production of community action  plans. 

Fig 2 The original LEAP logic diagram (2005)  

Fig 3 The LEAP for Wales logic diagram  

5 Networking for community action  

Plans can be made on paper, when a community sets out to answer the seven questions of the  CMS logic, but using software as a set of spreadsheets or a dedicated database-diary is better  for continuity and reporting. In a wider community context, conservation management is  equated with planning for sustainability in all aspects of community life. Every nook and  cranny of a neighbourhood becomes a distinctive place worthy of environmental surveillance  and a community action plan. A plan can be modelled on the preservation or enhancement of  the community’s core green heritage assets, no matter how small. The plan can then be  extended to include the management of other community assets/issues, such as health,  transport, security, energy use, tidiness, and opportunities for employment and recreation. In  this context the basic planning logic unifies action and recording across sectorial boundaries.  

When the UK strategy for sustainable development was first launched, the idea of a national  citizen’s environmental network was proposed. The aim was to unite people to share their  ideas and achievements in making and running community action plans for living sustainably.  It was envisaged that a ‘copycat network’ should be initiated and controlled at the community  level to ensure good ideas and practices are copied and multiplied. However, the idea as it  was originally proposed, did not materialise; the Internet was in its infancy and freely  available social networking software did not exist. 

An environmental network needs to have the following two features:  

(i) A system for social networking  

(ii) A freely accessible database for presenting the community’s planning process and its  current state of progress towards meeting outcomes of citizen-led environmental  improvements.  

The Internet is now available to accommodate these two features on line. The first  requirement is exemplified by text-based screen presentations such as ‘wikis’, blogs and  ‘conversational threads’; the second is illustrated by the ‘web viewer’ for presenting versions  of the databases that are used to record planning and its outcomes as a process, which can  both be interrogated on line by every member of the community.  

An Internet community consists of:  

• People, who act socially as they strive to satisfy their own needs or perform special roles,  such as leading or moderating;  

• A shared purpose, such as an interest, need, information exchange, or service that provides a  facility for the community;  

• Policies, in the form of tacit assumptions, rituals, protocols, rules, and laws that guide  people’s interactions;  

• Software systems, to support and mediate social interactions and facilitate a sense of  togetherness”  

These common activities help to create a sense of community by providing a common feeling  of identity, with which the members of the community can associate themselves. This growth  of trust between members of a community is an important factor in the success of an online 

community. The common factors that help shape the behaviour of community members  become practiced habits that help to construct the norms and identity of the community as a  whole. The strength of such a network is frequently perceived to impart a heightened vitality  to the community, and contributes to a strong sense of community identity.    

Social networking  

Social networking is the process of initiating, developing and maintaining friendships and  collegial or project sharing relationships for mutual benefit. Current discussions surrounding  social networking deal with web-based or technology-mediated tools, interactions, and related  phenomena, but social networking really takes place in many forms, including face to face. A  community that is active in strong in planning and acting grows through social networking, a  process in which the Internet is now a primary driver.  

Much technology-facilitated social networking is done in the form of person-to-person  exchanges that can be classified as question and answer, point and counterpoint,  announcement and support, action and feedback.  

Technologies that facilitate social networking tend to emphasize ease of use, spontaneity,  personalization, exchange of contacts, and low-end voyeurism. Some technologies that are  often considered social networking technologies may not be socially oriented in and of  themselves, but the communities that form around such technologies often demonstrate key  elements of social networking (for example, the discussion communities that form around  collaboratively authored wiki content).  

Online community networks are often developed and deployed to supplement residential face to-face communities in an effort to revitalise and grow neighbourhoods and to revive civic  engagement and local community identity in society. In this context, the ubiquity of the  Internet enables and encourages users to pursue ‘personalized networking’ which leads to the  emergence of private ‘portfolios of sociability’. ‘Proximity’ is the factor in on line residential  communities, which produces networked individualism. This gives online residential  communities a competitive advantage over dispersed online communities. Residential  networks allow residents to interact online and to continue developing online interaction  offline, in real life and face to face. This offline and place-based dimension introduces  challenges to the design, development and rollout of online community networks.  

Reaching a critical mass of users is considered to be the key criterion of success and has been  reported as one of the most common stumbling blocks: “If you build it, they will not  necessarily come”. However, other studies have shown that a critical mass of interconnected  users alone is not sufficient for a community network to live up to higher expectations, such  as increasing social capital in the community, fostering sociability and establishing  community identity. Those geographic communities already rich in social capital may  become richer thanks to community networks, and those communities poor in social capital  may remain poor, or simply put, connectivity does not ensure community. Something else  has to be done. The Internet neither destroys nor creates social capital, people do, and the  Internet will not automatically offset the decline in more conventional forms of social capital,  but it has that potential. 

Some examples of popular social networking technologies include:  

• asynchronous discussions via discussion boards or newsgroups  

• instant messaging, e.g. MSN, AIM, and ICQ  

• text-messaging or SMS  

• message logging and sharing, such as Twitter 

• document sharing and controlled collaborative authoring, such as Zoho or Google  Docs & Spreadsheets  

• loosely structured collaborative authoring and information sharing, such as wikis.  • photo sharing, such as Flickr and Picasa  

• video sharing, such as YouTube  

• blogs (life-sharing, news analysis, and editorialising)  

• online communities, such as Nings, Facebook, etc.  

• Second Life – sort of a combination of many of the above communication and  collaborative tools. 

Electronic networks may help support human networks and combat social exclusion provided  there is sufficient access and support. Experience shows that most communities start as small  emergent clusters organized around common interests or goals. Usually these clusters are  isolated from each other. They are very small groups of 1-5 people or organizations that have  connected out of necessity. Many of these small clusters are found in under-developed  communities. If these clusters do not organize further, the community structure remains weak  and under-producing. Without an active leader who takes responsibility for building a  network spontaneous connections between groups emerge very slowly, or not all. This  network leadership role is known as a network weaver. Instead of allowing these small  clusters to drift in the hope of making a lucky connection, the weaver actively creates new  interactions between the clusters. Through this activity useful community structures emerge.  This process is not easy to start, to maintain and to spread.  

Spreading know how, good ideas and achievements is vital so that a community knows where  it stands. This requires groups coming together in geographical nodes, which then make  connections with other nodes. Nodes can appear and coalesce in community facilities, such  as churches and heritage centres. Establishing nodes is also vital for bringing new  communities on board and to provide local training in the planning logic and how to use  software. It was to serve these purposes that the ecomuseum emerged as an idea to promote  the establishment of self-sustaining citizen’s environmental networks. 

“The greatest limiting factor in setting up a regional citizen’s environmental  

network is to establish local training centres”.

6 Neighbourhood ecomuseums  

Introduced by the French museologist Hugues de Varine in 1971, the word ecomuseum is  used to define a very special kind of museum based on an agreement by which a local  community takes care of a place (M.Maggi, 2002, Ecomusei. Guida europea, Torino-Londra Venezia, Umberto Allemandi & C.), where:  

• agreement, means a long term commitment, not necessarily an obligation by the law;  • local community, means a local authority and a local population jointly;  • take care, means that some ethical commitment and a vision for a future kind of local  development are needed;  

• place, means not just a surface but complex layers of cultural, social, environmental  values, which define a unique local heritage.  

According to “Declaration of Intent of the Long Net Workshop, Trento (Italy), May 2004” an  Ecomuseum is a dynamic way in which communities preserve, interpret, and manage their  heritage for a sustainable development.  

A ‘dynamic way’ means to go beyond the formal aspect of a museum, and beyond a simple  set course, designed on paper. It is about designing real actions, able to change society and  improve the landscape.  

Community means a group with:  

• general involvement;  

• shared responsibilities;  

• interchangeable roles: where public officers, representatives, volunteers and other  local actors are all playing a vital role in an ecomuseum.  

Ecomuseums are more properly defined by what they do rather than by what they are. Interest  in ecomuseums is growing all the time. Museums of this type are now springing up all over  Europe. Over 80% of such initiatives saw the light in the last 30 years, and the phenomenon  multiplied notably in the 1980s. After the Second World War, the entire landscape and the  economy of European countries had been turned upside down: factories closed,  unemployment reached new levels, trades disappeared, traditions, customs and modes of life  were wiped out. It is during this period of rapid transformation that the concept of the  “Ecomuseum” came to life; partly to protect some of this complex heritage and also as a tool  to help the concerned populations that gave a meaning to this heritage. Examples of abound in  Europe and notably in France around the industrial parks of Eastern and Northern France that  had been abandoned during the early 20th century.  

The basic tasks of the ecomuseum do not differ from those of traditional museums and  heritage centres to collect, document, study, conserve and communicate a given heritage.  However, “new” museums differ from conventional museums in that they ascribe utilitarian  value to the tasks of preservation and connect the work to non-museum aims, such as the  presentation of ideas to promote living sustainably.  

The area for the ecomuseum is referred to as a discrete territory, which can be a parish or  electoral ward, or a region consisting of a group of these communities networked to a regional  node, which could be a conventional museum (Fig 4). In the context of LEAP, the  ecomuseum is could be seen as a virtual on-line entity using social networking software to  present and explain its exhibits, in the form of pictures, videos, audio files and text  documents.  

Fig 4 Necklace models of ecomuseums  

“To connect is to be human” 

7 An integrated model of localism  

Organisations of all sizes suffer from the consequences of internal functional barriers. This is  a major pain point in government because because most major strategies require support from  many different support groups. In order to break down these silos, each functional group and  

the individuals within it must understand how they fit into the core functions of bigger  strategic frameworks. The problem is variously termed as Silo Thinking, Silo Vision, Silo  Mentality or the Silo Effect. This is evident when departments, teams or staff, who may be  high performers individually, fail to choreograph their activities to deliver their resources  required to integrate with the inputs from others. This symptom is so widespread that it is  often accepted as an inevitable problem within all organisations. Except that it is not  inevitable. The problem with organizations that are trapped in this siloed mentality is that  employees rarely study how their function relates to the inputs of others.  

Silo thinking of this kind can only be overcome by all providers working to a common  systems model, which for community development is described as a community resource  map. The map defines the connections between stakeholders and those in support. It shows  the alignment and deployment of the resources from a particular agency or department  towards a clear set of objectives, with accountability for the efficiency and effectiveness of  their application. Managers will then take responsibility for defining clearly what has to be  achieved for their group to secure its successful integration into the mission.  

Community resource mapping is a strategy for promoting inter-agency collaboration by better  have access to a broad, comprehensive, and integrated system of services essential in  achieving desired outcomes defined by the stakeholders. Community resource mapping can  be used to improve education, workforce development, and economic development in a  community by aligning available services and resources, streamlining those services and  resources, and identifying areas of need. The idea of resource mapping builds on the  community’s strengths by increasing the frequency, duration, intensity, and quality of  services and supports in the community. It is a route map to organize information and give  direction to meet a common community goal. As a result of resource mapping, people have  more flexibility and choice in navigating the system, whether they be providers or  stakeholders.  

Community resource mapping is particularly important as a strategy for improving outcomes  for communities with complex and varied needs. When collectively pooled, resources for  such communities can create a synergy that produces services well beyond the scope of what  any single provider can hope to mobilize. The alignment of resources, streamlining of  resources, and identification of service gaps within the community enables educators and  service providers to (a) understand the full range of services available to different members  within a community, (b) more efficiently provide the specific supports needed by each, and  (c) develop new services and supports targeted to fill existing gaps.  

An example of a community resource map is presented in Fig 4. It is a system designed to  funnel services from departments within the Welsh government, local government and partner  agencies, so that national community development strategies can be more effectively  integrated into communities who are making action plans to increase their well being. It was  outlined at the ‘Environmental Event’ held in Cardiff, in May 2012 and was later developed  into the ‘cynefin’ system for promoting place-based community action plans.

Fig 5 Community resource map for integrating top-down support for bottom-up needs 

“Everyone is a piece in the community jigsaw” 

Networking Nature With Postcards

Monday, July 4th, 2022


1  Introduction

Wales has many firsts in environmental education and a postcard educational database was invented by Welsh teachers in the late 1990s as “Postcards for Our Planet” (POP).  This was a pre INTERNET communication system linking schools in Wales and Portugal.  The objective was to model a global democracy of youth to access leaders with young people’s ideas and concerns about how to ‘rescue’ planet Earth.  It was a postcard version of the citizen’s environmental network proposed in the first UK strategy for sustainable development. The idea was to help young people identify the good and bad things about where they live, then work to improve the bad things and share their ideas, achievements and experiences globally with handmade postcards.

‘Networking Nature With Postcards’ (NNP) began in the 2010s as a microlearning scheme linking primary and secondary schools in Wales with their European counterparts.    NNP revisits POP.  It is a model in environmental education to encourage people to have empathy for the conservation of wildlife.   This is achieved by individuals telling stories about the environment by combining sight-sized data in pictures, with text to make bite-sized  topics of knowledge that can be assembled into the meal-sized subject of conservation management  (Fig 1).

Fig 1 Making a meal of data and knowledge

In IT, symbols, characters, images, or numbers are data. These are the inputs an IT system needs to process in order to produce a meaningful interpretation. Data in and of itself is not useful until human intelligence is applied to convert it to knowledge through the identification of patterns and trends, relationships, assumptions, and relevance. In other words, data in a meaningful form becomes knowledge.

Generally speaking, bite-sized e-learning modules are small, self-contained pockets of knowledge, usually defined as topics. They are shared  with  other topic-makers in a microlearning environment; i.e. a classroom or on line.  They typically range in duration from 1 to 15 minutes and are usually focused on one or two tightly defined learning objectives. Here are a few examples.  

We are now in the where visual content plays a big role in every part of life. It is estimated that 65 percent of the population are visual learners, so graphics are key to engaging students in eLearning courses. Sight-sized visuals summarize content in smaller, and easier to process chunks, and when the right visuals are selected to make a bite-sized knowledge nugget, they offer more comprehensibility than text-based explanations or stand alone audios. Also, students effortlessly relate emotions with visuals, which make eLearning courses based on pictures more impactful and memorable than only using text.

 Between 1875 and the 1940s, cigarette companies often included collectible cards with their packages of cigarettes. Cigarette cards (fag cards) are one of the earliest examples of bite-sized knowledge nuggets in a system of mass production. The BKNs are small trading cards issued by tobacco manufacturers to stiffen cigarette packaging and advertise cigarette brands.  Regarding their use as educational materials one side contains the visual representation of what the card is about. The reverse side of the card would have a short description of the subject of the card.  Albums could be bought to hold collections of cards relating to different topics (Fig 2).

Fig 2 . An album of 50 fish species found in the coastal waters of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, issued by John Player and Sons

All kinds of BKNs can support classroom and distance learning about how to live sustainably.  The differences between them are the systems of delivery.  In this context, BKNs can be assembled as narratives to engage practically with the United Nations 2030 sustainable development goals.  These put nature first in all that we do and orientate civilization toward non material ends.  In terms of pedagogy, BKN’s can be thought of as the basis for new life skills packages for teaching ecocacy.  Ecosacy defines the relationships between culture and ecolog to be taught alongside literacy and numeracy, for people to prosper within an overcrowded planet. In the new Welsh humanistic syllabus of hope, life skills are essentially those abilities that help promote mental well-being and competence in young people as they face the realities of life. 

2 Postcards and other knowledge nuggets

(i) Postcards  

A postcard holds tangible memories with pictures and words to amuse and delight.  ‘Networking Nature With Postcards’ is a hybrid analogue/digital version of classical postcarding. It is part of a social platform that utilizes the mailing, networking technology of the 21st century to preserve the old-fashion handwritten bought postcard, but illustrating it with a unique handcrafted personalised image. These postcard pictures aren’t squashed versions of bigger, bolder artworks and photographs, like Twitter and Instagram. They are public works of art and you can display the pictures you make in your own gallery.  Also, postcards are valued because we can hold them and look at them over and over without the need to open a computer screen to search and scroll. It is Instagram and Twitter in one and every bit as lovely and keepable as the art we frame and hang on walls.  On the other hand, any kind of picture/text on screen package is a powerful tool for classroom learning and communicating between classrooms, particularly where it brings art and science together, to apply arts reasoning to express sustainability.

As an individual sending and receiving postcards all you have to do is to compose an information package, consisting of a picture and some text, to make a postcard and send it to the recipients saying how nature makes you feel, why you enjoy nature and what you are doing locally to put nature first in all that you do.  As a teacher you can make nature postcards as a classroom exercise and post and receive cards from other classes on behalf of your class. Initiating or joining a topic forum allows ideas and achievements to be presented for discussion and development by attaching a picture/text package to a post.  

(ii) Tweets

Digital platforms for making knowledge nuggets are exemplified by Twitter.  Twitter is a really a microblogging platform that allows individuals to communicate by sending short messages of up to 280 characters. Although it enables people to be in constant contact, its value in an educational context is less clear.  Twitter as an educational tool is able to open up totally new worlds for students and allows Tweeters to collaborate and participate in meaningful hashtag chats..  The advice given today by Twitter to increase your reach as a twitterer is to ‘add a picture; people like pictures!’.  Additional information is accessed through an URL link.  An entire suite of Tweets is extractable using #-tagged filters. Feedback is available using ‘Twitter Analytics’, which displays day by day  ‘impressions’ and ‘engagements’ for each Tweet. An ‘impression’ is a Tweet that has been delivered to the Twitter stream of a particular account.  An ‘engagement’ could be a click to a landing page, a reply to a Tweet, or a comment on a Facebook post. Either way, the record of an engagement means that someone has the Tweeter’s attention and they have become engaged in a positive way. In Twitter-speak, a ‘Moment’ is a set of Tweets curated in a sequence that tells a  story. It is a personal linear narrative; a mind map incorporating the personal Tweets of its maker. It can also include other people’s Tweets. ‘Moments’ have their own URLs and can be shared and developed with others.

To summarise, Tweets are sight-sized pieces of information that are turned into a body of knowledge when they are packaged as a Moment.  Here is an example of two year’s tweeting on the topic of Climate Change.

(iii) Flashcards

Making flashcards in a classroom is akin to making postcards. The former can be considered as virtual postcards because the act of making flashcards is a way to “work” the information of picture and text,, challenging students to think about which picture to have on one side and the related description on the other.   Like postcards, flashcards can be swapped between classes to establish a network.

Flashcards are small note cards used for bite size information retrieval which can then be used for improving memory through practiced information retrieval. Flashcards are typically two-sided, with the prompt on one side and the information about the prompt on the other. This may include names, vocabulary, concepts, or procedures.  A flashcard is the ideal medium for a visual learner, because it presents the essence of an idea or concept in a clear and precise image. Whether a flashcard contains text, pictures, or a combination of the two, it is in an ideal format for visual learners.

4 The System

This picture/text system is being assembled and tested in a school context to network classrooms in Wales to support the new humanities-centered  Welsh curriculum. 

The system (Figs 3 & 4) consists of three components;

  • a geographic mother hub, which is a place that exemplifies conservation management in action;
  • a technical hub which provides the facility for sending, receiving, saving and displaying postcards or other kinds of BKNs;
  • a topic forum which stores knowledge and records discussion about a topic in environmental education;   

To begin, a teacher should have:

  • a topic to discuss; warming
  •  a fact to present; e.g. national ecological footprints
  •  an opinion to state; e.g. syllabus development
  •  a request to make; e.g. please send information about….
  •  a destination to reach; e.g. an individual or an organisation;
  •  a technical hub as a collection of resources to facilitate the project e.g. a social medium;
  •  and a geographical hub as a place to refer to that exemplifies conservation management in action; e.g. a designated nature site.  

The rationale for exchanging BKNs involves the seamless integration of the process of making and sending them with the Geographic Mother Hub and the Technical Hub (Figs 3 ). 

Fig 3 Networking nature with postcards: the basics.

Fig 4 Relationships of topics with the mother hub

Fig 5  The complete system

The mother hub, which if the hub is a nature reserve is called a nature hub, is the source of ideas and information to distill into BKNs as distinct packages of knowledge about how the reserve functions as a managed ecosystem .  In this connection, animals protected in a hub can be said to be the watchers of the world, the gatekeepers of the environment.  Animal BKNs are the prime messengers of the state of the ecosystem and its management backed up with a library of copyright free digital resources.. 

5 The History

In its promotion of Networking Nature with Postcards the sponsors are revisiting the young people’s syllabus of hope produced by an international youth group immediatley  after the Rio 1992 environment summit.  The Schools in Communities Agenda 21 Network (SCAN) was a spin off from this in Wales, where it was funded by Texaco, the Countryside Council for Wales and Dyfed County Council. SCAN now exists as three Google Sites, ( nowSCANRescue Mission Planet Wales and Skomer Island).  SCAN also led to the schools phenology network managed by the National Museum in Cardiff, SCAN Spring Bulbs For Schools.

Appendix  1

Puffins and Pandas

1 History

In 2020 a wildlife competition, The Puffin Prize, was sponsored by The Wildlife Trust of South and West Wales (WTSWW) & International Classrooms On Line (ICOL). The organizers of the competition were trying to understand why young people enjoy nature. What do they find interesting and exciting and what would encourage them to explore further, to spend more time with nature?

All that the entrants had to do was to share one of their favourite experiences of nature. It could be a visit to a nature reserve, or a walk through an urban woodland, a hedgerow or a field full of flowers.  The nature experience could be submitted as an art poster, an essay, a poem, a picture or a combination of any of these

The hope was that the submissions would signify why the applicants enjoyed nature, what they find interesting or exciting and what makes them want to get close to wildlife.  Perhaps they would come up with ideas that would make it easier for them  to explore the countryside and its wildlife.

2 ‘Puffins And Pandas’

‘Puffins And Pandas’ is a new project that developed from reflections on the responses to the Puffin Prize’.  In particular, feedback pointed towards the need to boost the use of IT networking for people to engage seamlessly with environmental issues by creating digital stories about  nature conservation.  Inspired by the blogs ‘Kate On Conservation, and Nerworking Nature With Postcards, ‘Puffins And Pandas is a group of bloggers, each using Google Blogger to create a personal informational website for sharing discrete diary-posts about ideas and issues of managing Earth for wildlife conservation.  

To take this viewpoint brings nature writing into focus. Because of developments in IT, illustrated digital stories are now both easy to produce and simple to publish and are an ideal way to energize learning and engage people of all ages in blogging at a deeper level. Digital storytelling creates space for individuals to pursue personalized topics about which they are passionate.  It grows their learning around assigned topics, and showcases their learning for peers, teachers, and audiences beyond school, all of whom are able to network with the storytellers.

Puffins and Pandas are the world’s most well known animals and they are universally recognised as being charismatic symbols of nature conservation.  They are beautiful, endangered, and loved.  Like the Giant Panda, Puffins carry messages of hope that humanity will eventually put nature first in all that we do before it is too late.  

Oliver Prince, Puffineer in the UK Puffin Project says: “Puffins are lovely and remarkable birds. They have so much character with their handsome appearance, their behaviour around burrows, the lovely noises they make and the astonishing effort they go to feed their young pufflings!”  

Puffins are wild animals that are easy to anthropomorphise so they can bridge the communications gap between humans and the wild and free.  In particular,  they can spark interest in addressing climate change, reducing and cleaning up plastic waste, and other human-caused challenges that threaten their existence.  In this sense we can have conversations about nature conservation on behalf of puffins..

‘Puffins and Pandas’ is a conceptual vehicle to allow the power of storytelling to blossom in learning spaces.  The nature hub, is the small Welsh island of Skomer.  The technical hub is Google Classroom, and/or Google Blogger

To help these conversations along two flipbooks are available as copyright free resources, ‘The Atlantic Puffin’, provides a detailed study of the natural history of puffins.on Skomer  The book is illustrated with over 70 colour photographs of puffins showing fascinating pioneering shots of them  both underwater and underground.  The other flip book, ‘Skomer Island’, is the readable report of the first field survey of the island carried out in 1946.  

‘Puffins And Pandas’ is not a competition. The aim is to encourage Micro-learning, which involves learning in small steps. School activities based on micro-learning usually feature short-term lessons, projects, or coursework that is designed to provide the student with ‘bits’ of information. For example, rather than trying to create a broad subject all at once, aspects of the subject are broken down into smaller pieces of data and reassembled as personalised topics, thus recycling eye-sized information into knowledge and networking it via the Internet.  

The copyright free digital resources to help people along are:-

The Puffin Hyperook- a flip book

Island of Sustainability– a Google Site

Skomer Island- report of the first field survey-a flip book.

S.K.O.M.E.R. – a mindmap of cultural ecology

Natural History of Selborne- a Gutenberg Press online ebook

Educating for change- a free forum

One Small Wilderness- a personal mind map of a special place

To participate all you have to join the coll;ective do is create a free account with Google Blogger, create your very own Blogger and send its Internet address to

It will be added to a list of blogs that will be made public with the understanding that the collective will be self sustainable.

Go to a Google Blogger version of this blog

Applied Zooetics

Monday, May 23rd, 2022

An Online Customisable Syllabus Of Radical Hope

1 Zooetics

Zoe and bios both mean life in Greek, but they are not synonymous.  Zoe… refers to life in general, without characterization. Bios characterizes a specific life, the outlines that distinguish one living thing from another. Bios is the Greek root for ‘biography,’ zoe for ‘zoology.

Zooetic, or zoetic, means living or vital. It is in use today to address the paradigm shift in science, culture and society expressed in the concept  of the Anthropocene.  The Anthropocene Project is a multidisciplinary body of work combining fine art photography, film, virtual reality, augmented reality, and scientific research to investigate human influence on the state, dynamic, and future of Earth.  It is a quest  to explore new ways of engaging human knowledge and research for humankind to exist along with the rights and freedoms of other forms of life and to imagine designs, prototypes and interfaces to apply artistic reasoning for the conservation management of future interspecies ecosystems. 

Applied Zooetics can be understood as “Framing the Anthropocene in Art”.  Once an impaired ecological interface of the transition/contact zone between humans and ‘nature’ is framed as art, a work of art emerges. The process never leaves the viewer unaffected  Understandings of the meeting place and its cultural value are consolidated and expressed in love, respect and care.

In his book, The Silent Earth, Dave Goulson, writing about the cultural value of insects says:

“For me, the economic value of insects is just a tool with which to bash politicians over the head. They only seem to value money, so I point out to them that insects contribute to the economy. But if I’m honest, their economic worth has nothing whatsoever to do with why I try to champion their cause. I do it because I think they are wonderful. The sight of the first brimstone butterfly of the year, a flash of golden yellow wings in my garden on the first warm day in late winter, brings joy to my heart. Similarly, the chirrup of bush crickets on a summer’s eve, or the sound of clumsy bumble-bees buzzing among the flowers, or the sight of a painted lady butterfly basking in the spring sunshine after her long migration from the Mediterranean — they all soothe my soul. I cannot imagine how desolate the world would be without them. These little marvels remind me what a wonderful and fascinating world we have inherited. Are we really willing to condemn our grandchildren to live in a world where such delights are denied them?”

A special feature of zooetics is that the concept engages with shifts in contemporary understandings of nature by applying arts reasoning to express sustainability.  Works of art are not merely representations of the way things are seen but function to reveal and evolve a community’s shared understanding of its environment. Each time a new artwork is added to any culture, the meaning of what it is to exist in that culture is inherently changed.  From this point of view all art is ecological.  While borders draw divisive lines, frontiers are ecosystem transitions and contact zones.  Diversity is always richest in areas where different ecosystems meet: This is the edge effect which attracts artists. 

An example of applied zooetics is the pioneering project launched in 2016 by the UK National Trust and the GoldenTree production company to express the impact of coastal erosion on the loss of landscape heritage along the Cornish Coast.  It demonstrates the application of arts reasoning to express a complex system of conservation management  Five artists worked at three different harbours and beaches that are protected by the National Trust – Penberth, Mullion Cove (Fig 1) and Godrevy. Each artist’s residency produced a performance or installation that became part of a program of public activities during the final weekend of October. It costs the National Trust around £3,000 per mile along the coast to care and maintain these outstanding coastal areas for the benefit of people and wildlife. It is thanks to membership, donations and volunteers that the charity is able to attempt this. Their message to the public was; complete protection is desirable, but beyond their financial resources. They are in retreat.

Fig 1  Mullion Cove

The objective was to offer people a chance to experience the outdoors in a different way, beginning with art, to deepen their understanding and value of the science of care and conservation that goes into preserving the outdoors and the future these coastlines might have.  

Introducing the project, Ian Marsh, general manager for West Cornwall said: “The National Trust’s core purpose as a charity is to look after special places for ever, for everyone. But under the influence of the sea many places along the Cornish coast are crumbling, shifting and falling away and we need to be able to understand this and respond to the challenges this poses to us”.

“With climate change and rising sea-levels the issues of erosion are becoming increasingly stringent. Perpetually reinforcing harbour walls and cliff faces has proven to be unsustainable. So, as part of caring for a place we sometimes have to let nature take its course. As part of this process we have commissioned GoldenTree to start communicating with local communities, exploring the changes we can expect to see in the long-term.

Penberth Cove saw the creation of a film by renowned Cornish filmmaker Mark Jenkin and Interviews with local people. Images of the cove were captured on a clockwork camera, and the black and white film was hand-processed and set to an original soundtrack by a local musician, Rick Williams.

At Mullion Cove performance-maker Louise Ann Wilson  transposed ideas of palliative care of people onto this ‘dying’ harbour. Learning from a palliative nurse and engaging local residents by creating ‘rituals of retreat’, she created a walking performance.  Called Mulliontide,  it was based on a walk from Poldhu Cove to Mullion Cove that focused on a much-loved landscape and explored the places where land, sea and people met. The performance noticed the effects of tide and time, acknowledged deep feelings for place and recognised the challenges of change – personal and topographical. Mulliontide was created by Wilson in collaboration with residents of Mullion who also performed the work. Moving from station to station along the coastal path, the performance invited participants to notice specific landscape features and layered them with memories, photos, songs and actions in order to think about belonging, loss and repair.  

At Godrevy, Dutch artist Titia Bouwmeester made a work that responded to and worked with the tide and sea. For more than a month Bouwmeester filmed the coastal landscape of Godrevy, capturing how the tide drew patterns on the beach, the daily choreography of hikers, surfers and farmers and the moon’s arc across the sky. Monumental projections were screened in the closed setting of a barn where 24 hours became 24 minutes. The audience witnessed how the landscape changed from dawn till dusk. A specially composed soundtrack completed the cinematic experience, immersing the audience in a hypnotic flow of image and music.

The natural environment is under pressure, and the thinking behind Mulliontide was that artists would be able to tell these stories and the story of the Trust’s part in sustainable conservation care, that will bring a new experience and understanding to people who visit these places. All events became part of a three-day programme, subtitled ‘Miss You Already’ assembled, around the theme of coastal change. People were able to visit the installation at Godrevy and join the performance at Mullion, enjoying the artwork and reflect on questions such as what is the best way to retreat? What will we lose when? What does change look like exactly? How can one reduce the pain that comes with losing something that is loved?  The message was that the intellectual content of art is altogether different from the intellectual content of science.  

Addressing the problem of defining art and science the 19th century the zoologist Thomas Henry Huxley said   “The subjects of all knowledge are divisible into the two groups, matters of science and matters of art; for all things with which the reasoning faculty alone is occupied, come under the province of science, all things which stir our emotions, come under the term of art.”

However, the pleasures one receives from the application of either art or science, have a common source. These pleasures arise from the satisfaction received in tracing the central theme of whatever a person is interested in at the moment in all its endless variations.  They demonstrate the truth of unity in variety. The process of comprehending the symbols used to express an idea of the moment is both intellectual and aesthetic.  It is intellectual because it is the mental picture which comprehends the laws governing any particular science or art; and it is esthetic because it is the feelings which determine the amount of emotional pleasure one can derive from them. But the ends are different. Scientific reasoning has as its end in the attainment of truth. Artistic reasoning has for its end the attainment of pleasure. 

2  Education  in the Anthropocene

The Anthropocene (Fig 2) is a proposed geological epoch dating from the commencement of the significant human impact on Earth’s geology and ecosystems, including, but not limited to, human induced climate change.

Fig 2 A landscape of the Anthropocene

The UNESCO publication ‘Rethinking Education Towards A Global Common Good (2015), asks three questions relevant to education in the Anthropocene.  What education do we need?   What is the purpose of education in the current context of societal transformation? How should learning be organized?

UNESCO’s answers are :

Question 1  Education should  be  constructed  on  four pillars: 

  • learning to know, 
  • learning to do; 
  • learning to be 
  • and learning to  live  together.  

The belief is that giving  equal  attention  to  each  of  these  four  pillars will ultimately enrich all the facets of education, including those that are more narrowly professional.

Question 2  The one continuing purpose of education, since ancient times, has been to bring people to as full a realization as possible of what it is to be human. Other statements of educational purpose have also been widely accepted, namely: 

  • to develop the intellect;
  • to serve social needs;
  • to contribute to the economy;
  • to create an effective work force;
  •  to prepare students for a job or career;
  •  to promote a particular social or political system. 

The broader humanistic purpose of education includes all of the above to encompass every dimension of human experience and take every opportunity in curricula to connect with the targets of the UN’s 2030 Sustainable Development Strategy

Question 3  Let students lead the learning because learning takes place best in environments where students feel empowered to learn. Effective teachers are more like moderators/mentors, offering inspiration and guiding students to discover for themselves. Giving students the opportunity to be self-learners guarantees lifelong learning.

Question 4  Create an inquiry-based classroom environment.  If students are to lead the way to learning, they need to be able to ask questions – and then find the means to answer them. Students (and teachers) need to “wonder out loud” as they reflect on their learning, answering questions such as What do you Know? What do you Want to know? What have you Learned?, which can guide students toward true self-motivated learning.  

Question 5  Encourage collaboration because we are greater than the sum of our parts. An effective classroom is a sharing classroom. Students are social beings.  Find every opportunity to allow students to form pairs and small groups. Not only does this encourage the development of speaking and listening skills, but it also teaches students how to effectively achieve goals together.

Fig 3 Curriculum development in the Anthropocene

At a basic level, the pedagogy for curriculum development in the Anthropocene is founded on assembling and distributing authored information packages (AIPs), each consisting of a picture/graphic with a legend, which can be assembled as zooetic mind maps about how to live sustainably (Fig 3).    An IT slideshow is a collection of virtual AIPs.  A ‘flash card’, a ‘tweet’ and a postcard are also AIPs. They can all be traced back to Orbis Pictus, or Orbis Sensualium Pictus (Visible World in Pictures), a book for children written by Moravian-German educator John Amos Comenius and published in 1658. It was the first widely used children’s textbook with pictures, published first in Latin and German and later republished in many European languages. The revolutionary book quickly spread around Europe and became the defining children’s textbook, imparting life skills, for centuries.  

All kinds of AIPs can support classroom and distance learning about how to live sustainably.  The differences between them are the systems of delivery.  In this context, AIPs can be assembled as narratives delineating learning pathways to engage practically with the United Nation’s 2030 sustainable development strategy.  This puts nature first in all that we do and and orientates civilization toward non material ends.  It is a new  life skills  package of ecocacy,  to be taught alongside literacy and numeracy for people to prosper within an overcrowded planet. Life skills are essentially those abilities that help promote mental well-being and competence in young people as they face the realities of life.  

Most development professionals agree that life skills are generally applied in the context of health and social events. They can be utilized in many content areas: prevention of drug use, sexual violence, teenage pregnancy, HIV/AIDS prevention and suicide prevention. The definition extends into consumer education, environmental education, peace education or education for development, livelihood and income generation, among others. In short, life skills empower young people to take positive action to protect themselves and promote health and positive social relationships across cultural divides. 

William Ophuls calls the picture/graphic a ‘pattern’ and a collection of AIPs is a mind map delivering knowledge in ‘pattern language’.   A pattern language is needed  to make ecology the master science of our age.  We need to stop thinking of ourselves as somehow above or outside the natural systems that support us.

3  Hope, ecology and art

In 2016, Amy Franceschini was shortlisted in the Artes Mundi competition at the National Museum and Galleries of Wales.  She traveled to Cardiff from Oslo by boat, retracing the migratory journey of seeds, to explore the politics of food production and the countries that our foods originate from. Her legacy was the idea that an art installation can apply arts thinking to explain sustainability. In Wales it led to the formation of the S.K.O.M.E.R Collective, linking art with science to demonstrate sustainability knowledge organised to manage environments responsibly.  Inspired by Futurefarmers and the Flatbread Society the S.K.O.M.E.R Collective is centred on a free forum entitled ‘Educating for Change’ allowing people to freely participate in creating a syllabus of radical hope .The knowledge framework is cultural ecology,  an interdisciplinary, social concept (blog).  It contrasts the old sustainable relations of people to the land with the present-day worldwide scramble for scarce natural resources and the global environmental damage of unsustainable mass production. These days, everyone has their own mind map of cultural ecology. These personal projects, under the acronym S.K.O.M.E.R, chart the behavioural changes required to manage the flows of materials and ideas between people, ecosystems and place for a smooth social continuity of belonging between generations. Skomer is also a small Welsh island nature reserve where ideas of syllabus reform first emerged in the 1950s and eventually led to UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme

In early July 2017, the Rachel Carson Center in Munich, together with University of Texas, Austin hosted a two-day workshop on “Radical Hope.”  It brought together 21 people from a variety of continents and disciplinary perspectives to explore and exchange ideas on ‘hope’ as a renewable and essential educational resource in an age of change.. Their proposition put to an abused world was that it…..”is hope, above all, that gives us strength to live and to continually try new things, even in conditions that seem as hopeless as ours do, here and now.  In the face of this absurdity, life is too precious a thing to permit its devaluation by living pointlessly, emptily, without meaning, without love, and, finally, without hope”.  

Ultimately we cannot rely solely on a science-dominated syllabus to provide intellectual content for human survival. In science, intellectual content is truth to fact and the deductions and generalizations which can be made from facts. Science has little to say about meaning, love and hope.  The intellectual content of art is truth to nature. But this truth is relative for it depends entirely upon the intellectual culture of the artist and the person to whom art is addressed. A syllabus of hope for life post 2030 requires a flexible curriculum that integrates art and science, alias culture and ecology, in equal measure.

Fig 4  Reflecting and developing empathetic practices in a post fossil fuel world

Four years before the  radical hope workshop, ‘Frontiers in Retreat’ (Fig 4) had begun as a five-year long collaborative inquiry, funded by the European Commission, into the educational  intersections of art and ecology.  It was a collaborative enquiry involving 25 artists working between nations’ frontiers and network of arts residencies.  Their aim was to generate an understanding of the connections between local ecological concerns and processes of global warming. The proposition was that ecological concerns cannot be considered as purely environmental concerns, but should be understood as complex problems that transgress the borders/frontiers of disciplines and nations. The assumption was that artists uniquely have an innate ability to develop modes of knowledge for the understanding of complex co-dependencies between ecological, social, economic, and political phenomena. This ability to cross frontiers between long established subject disciplines is required in general for humankind to adapt to climate change, harnessing the richness in artistic reasoning as a critical form of engagement with people, places and change.  Indeed, we might hope to find the three activities‒art, science, politics‒triangulated in a syllabus of radical hope through our lives.”

In this context, Ann P. Kahn, Former President of The National PTA, wrote, “The creative arts are the measure and reflection of our civilization. They offer many children the opportunity to see life with a larger perspective… The moral values we treasure are reflected in the beauty and truth that is emotionally transmitted through the arts.”  Furthermore, Shawn Ginwright, an national international expert on youth development, has pinpointed the crucial role of hope and healing in achieving positive youth outcomes.  He says, “Youth development and civic engagement strategies designed to engage America’s most disconnected young people will only be successful to the extent that they address hopelessness and create opportunities to heal from socially toxic environments and structural violence. Success is dependent upon healing from these issues.”

Arts education is uniquely effective at meeting this need because it is a natural source of healing, hope, imagination and agency.  Learning how to identify and creatively address the effects of psychological, physical, emotional and historical trauma is becoming a critical aspect of the work of art educators, both in and out of school.  Imagining, but also having a space to create, is essential to adapt to social change and understand civics. Community art-based educational programs that express sustainability sow the seeds of social change, progressive ideas, and a sustainable future.  Therefore, art instruction integrated with science provides more to communities than just the art itself: it is the key ingredient to a better world.  In this context, prosperity is gaining something that was hoped for and is not focussed on accumulating monetary wealth.

4 A provisional syllabus of radical hope

The world is changing rapidly at the speed of Arctic’s melting ice – education must also change to keep up with global warming. Societies everywhere are undergoing deep environmental transformation, and this calls for new forms of learning to foster the competencies that societies and economies need, today and tomorrow. This means moving beyond literacy and numeracy, to focus on ecosacy to gain competence or knowledge in conservation management of ecosystems and take new approaches to learning for greater justice, social equity and global solidarity. 

Education in the post 2030 Anthropocene will need to be interdisciplinary/transdisciplinary cross-disciplinary, intersectional, ecofeminist/posthumanist, indigenous, and participatory. Participatory approaches are needed because people have to learn to work together and live with climate change and the other local features of the environmental crises, as well as working across cultures and genders in addressing environmental issues.  In particular, any kind of syllabus has to be unified by the theory of evolution with its roots in human ecology.  The idea that human activities have launched Earth into a new geologic epoch is an attempt to encourage a deep view of the coevolution of life and planet, as well taking a long systemic view of the future, which requires calling for a fundamental rethinking of human-habitat relationships.

Broadly speaking a syllabus of radical hope is defined in relation to two biochemical categories of Earth’s life forms, autotrophs and heterotrophs, separated by the way in which they feed on carbon compounds (Fig 5). Autotrophs are organisms that synthesize their own carbonaceous food from carbon dioxide through the process of photosynthesis.  Heterotrophs are not capable of photosynthesis and so have to obtain food by eating autotrophs or other heterotrophs. All heterotrophs are animals, including humans, and all plants are autotrophs.  This is the modern biochemical knowledge framework for living sustainably.  It recognises human heterotrophy is a cultural adaptation that taps into Earth’s ecosystems, competing with other animals and plants for space. Humankind is winning the competition and  species extinction is now unfolding because of it.  We are witnessing the sixth such event of mass extinction in Earth’s history and humankind, which is just one among millions of “cousin species”, has initiated the die-off heralding the age of the Anthropocene.  To survive, humankind has to define and manage an interspecies democracy in solidarity with non-human “people”.  

Fig 5  Autotrophs and heterotrophs; humankind’s cousins

More and more we are hearing that we have to find new ways to become sustainable and the Anthropocene debate is behind one of the most ambitious global scientific programmes of the past two decades. The main argument is that, from a geological point of view, humans are considered the major force of nature, thus implying that our current geological epoch is dominated by human activity. New cross curricular knowledge frameworks that transcend 19th century single subject curricula are needed to help people find a meaningful life in decarbonised economies.  Education in the Anthropocene requires examples of participatory, collaborative approaches to cultural ecology for living with global warming.  Routes for out of school individualised learning are urgently needed now for people to cross cultures and genders, assembling their own personal body of knowledge, through lifelong learning, as they go.  Earth has already reached its first tipping points like the Antarctic glacier melt and each of us has to adopt a unique way to manage our way out of the crisis within the targets of the UN’s 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. 

 Wolfgang. Haber, reflecting in 2007 on economy and competition as general driving forces of human social evolution, framed the issue of human survival as follows:

“Energy, food and land are the principal, closely interrelated traps; but the absolutely decisive resource in question is land whose increasing scarcity is totally underrated. Land is needed for fulfilling growing food demands, for producing renewable energy in the post-fossil and post-nuclear era, for maintaining other ecosystem services, for urban-industrial uses, transport, material extraction, refuse deposition, but also for leisure, recreation, and nature conservation. All these needs compete for land, food and non-food biomass production moreover for good soils that are scarcer than ever. We are preoccupied with fighting climate change and loss of biodiversity; but these are minor problems we could adapt to, albeit painfully, and their solution will fail if we are caught in the interrelated traps of energy, food, and land scarcity. Land and soils, finite and irreproducible resources, are the key issues we have to devote our work to, based on careful ecological information, planning and design for proper uses and purposes.

Conservation management is the activity that binds planning and design to the targets of the 2030 Agenda.  A conservation management system (CMS) is simply a recording and filing tool that aids and improves the way in which heritage assets are managed and kept in a favourable condition (Fig 6).   Its prime function is to keep track of the inputs, outputs and outcomes of projects to meet measurable objectives. The aim is to promote efficient and effective operations, and allow recording of the work that was done and reporting on whether or not the objective was achieved. A CMS also enables the exchange of information about methods and achievements within and between organisations. These are essential components of a CMS of any scale, whether a national park, or a village pond.

Fig 6  The UK conservation management system: the planning cycle

5  Personalised learning

Twenty-first century students at all levels live in an interconnected, diverse and rapidly changing world. Emerging economic, digital, cultural, demographic and environmental forces are shaping young people’s lives globally, increasing their intercultural encounters on a daily basis. This complex environment presents an opportunity and a challenge. Young people today must not only learn to participate in a more interconnected world but also appreciate and benefit from cultural differences. Developing a global and intercultural outlook is a process – a lifelong process – that education can shape.  Also, education must now be about learning to live on a planet under pressure. It must be about cultural literacy, on the basis of respect and equal dignity, helping to weave together the social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. This is a humanist vision of education as an essential common good inspired by the UNESCO Constitution, agreed 70 years ago.  Education is key to the global integrated framework of sustainable development goals. Education in environmental management is at the heart of our efforts both to adapt to change and to transform the world within which we live. Indeed, a quality basic education within the logic of environmental management is the necessary foundation for learning throughout life in a complex and rapidly changing world.  

David Greenwood, in 2014, voiced the question: “Are schools relevant to the complex realities of a changing planet? Or, do they mainly serve an outdated vision of an industrial society that is turning rapidly into a complex mix of decline and transformation?”  They are probably irrelevant with respect to the way they operate.  Technology, screens, devices and the internet have become almost ubiquitous in our lives, and that is as true for infants as it is for adults. Students feel comfortable interacting online with others and often see it as a similar experience to being in-person interaction. While it is impossible to recreate the entire in-person learning experience online, advances in technology and the comfort level of students and teachers in using these technologies make it more likely that online learning will continue to spread.

Changes in curricula are defined by the speed of internationalism.   New knowledge is being produced ever more rapidly year on year, and there is continuous pressure to turn that knowledge into new skills, new career paths, new business models and new lifestyles.  The big issue is that students are spending too much time in classes that will get them nowhere and not enough time in classes that will actually help them in life and their careers.  Personalized learning addresses the latter issue by tailoring pedagogy, syllabus, curriculum and learning environments to meet the needs and learning styles of individual learners. Personalization is broader than just individualization or differentiation in that it affords the learner a degree of choice about what is learned, when it is learned and how it is learned.  Therefore students should be able to choose their own classes because it would prepare them better for the real world. Students would have more motivation to learn and come to school if they were given the opportunity to choose their own classes instead of being required to take certain classes in order to graduate.  When students have the ability to choose what they would like to learn about, it makes them more eager to engage with the material.  To take a military metaphor, schooling prepare learners for the review rather than the battle.  In essence, personalized eLearning enables students to customize a variety of the knowledge elements involved in the online education process. This means that they are asked to set their own goals, go at their own pace, and communicate with instructors and other students to personalize the learning process. Ideally, the student is placed in charge of managing his/her own learning and is able to customize the experience by having a direct say in the processes and content that is being provided.  Mind mapping is vital to making a personal understanding.

The following five provisional pillars of an international democratic syllabus of radical hope were produced by a group of international students sponsored by International Classrooms On Line.  They can be customised by individuals to assemble personal pedagogies and curricula for lifelong learning to live sustainably (Fig 7).

Fig 7.   Mind map of a syllabus of hope


(i) In Wales, Personal and Social Education (PSE) is a school subject that helps children develop:

  • as individuals;
  • as members of families; 
  • as members communities.

(ii) PSE is the foundation and thread of a learning framework together with  ‘Rights and Freedoms’, Learning To Be Inclusive, ‘Managing Global Warming‘, the Application of Arts Reasoning to Express Sustainability. A Curriculum Relating to Environment and Sustainability

In order to obtain information on the variety of curricula that might emerge for individualised learning a polled forum was created which listed the following ten themes.

1 Become a citizen managing change

2 Redefine Economic Growth

3 Learn To Be Inclusive

4 Link Culture With Education (currently has the least hits)

5 Create New Knowledge Frameworks

6 Learn About Empathy

7 Promote Education For Change

8 Apply Arts Reasoning To Explain Sustainability (most hits)

9 Oats, Peas, Beans And Barley Grow

10 Awaken the Ecologist Within

6  Internet references

Rethinking Education

Education in the Anthropocene

Global Competency for an Inclusive World

Artists to Interpret the Impact of Coastal Erosion

Why Students Should Chose Their Own Classes

Photos of the Anthropocene

Radical Hope Syllabus

Embedding Sustainable Development

Educating for Change Forum

Orbis sensualium pictus

Making a CommunityAction Plan

Cultural ecology of human rights and freedoms

Wednesday, March 16th, 2022

Historically we have constructed our classrooms with the assumption that learning is a dry, staid affair best conducted in quiet tones and ruled by an unemotional consideration of the facts. The field of education, however, is beginning to see the potential power of emotions to fuel learning, informed by contributions from psychology and neuroscience. Sarah Rose Cavanagh argues in her book, The Spark of Learning, that if  educators want to capture a students’ attention, harness their working memory, bolster their long-term retention, and enhance their motivation, rhey should consider the emotional impact of their teaching materials, style and course design. To make this argument, she brings to bear a wide range of evidence from the study of education, psychology, and neuroscience, and she provides practical examples of successful classroom activities from a variety of disciplines in secondary and higher education.  With respect to human rights education there is no doubt that a photograph has this emotional power.

1 Visualising human rights

Fig 1 Ukraine 2022

Ukrainian soldiers rushed to aid a family hit by Russian mortar fire, Sunday, 6th March, but there was little to be done. Credit…Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

Human rights are fundamental rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled. They represent protection of our basic needs, as well as the conditions we need to flourish as human beings. These rights have corresponding responsibilities, of governments to their citizens, and of individuals to each other and to their wider communities. It is important that young people understand these rights and responsibilities. This will help to protect them, empower them and enable them to become responsible and active citizens.

When the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948, photography was considered a ‘universal language’ that would communicate across barriers of race and culture.

Images are a crucial way of disseminating ideas, creating a sense of proximity between peoples across the globe, and reinforcing notions of a shared humanity. Yet visual culture can also define boundaries between people, supporting perceived hierarchies of race, gender, and culture, justifying arguments for conquest and oppression. Only in recent years have scholars begun to argue for new notions of photography and culture that turn our attention to our responsibilities as viewers, or an ethics of spectatorship.  Visualising human rights is about the diverse ways that visual images have been used to define, contest, or argue on behalf of human rights. Images are powerless in themselves but are empowered by people using them to interpret their relations to each other in specific situations. As a knowledge system within the theme of cultural ecology they bring people together to develop visual practices promoting human rights around the globe.  Such practices not only involve the use of photos but also graphic displays such as diagrams and mind maps (Figs 1-3). 

Human rights is an interdisciplinary issue and there’s an avalanche of (mis)information.  That’s why human rights barrister Adam Wagner founded EachOther (formerly called RightsInfo). He particularly wanted to make sure that complex human rights issues could be understood by anyone and to dispel many of the myths that surround it.  Beyond Words are creative pioneers in data visualization and information design for this purpose.   International Classrooms On Line has tackled this problem using mind mapping to expose the cultural ecology of human rights and freedoms.

Fig 2 Human rights explainers

Fig 3 Part of rights and freedoms mind map.  See full map at:

2 Human rights: some principles

Recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world. . .

Preamble Universal Declaration of Human Rights

…every individual and every organ of society. . .shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms. . .

Preamble Universal Declaration of Human Rights

This Universal Declaration of Human Rights [is] a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations . . .

Preamble Universal Declaration of Human Rights

All human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated. 

World Conference on Human Rights Vienna 1993

Liberty does not consist in mere declarations of the rights of man. It consists in the translation of those declarations into definite action.

-Woodrow Wilson Address July 4, 1914

All human rights are universal, indivisible,interdependent and interrelated.

World Conference on Human Rights Vienna 1993

 Human rights are a part of British history, from the Magna Carta to the suffragettes. The Second World War was fought on these principles and since then, the UK has played a leading role in drafting and promoting human rights standards. It has chosen to ratify a number of international human rights instruments and human rights will continue to play an important role in the UK’s constitutional and domestic legal arrangements, whether it is through the Human Rights Act or a Bill of Rights. Moreover, as a signatory to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the UK is legally obliged to teach about children’s rights.

Jack Snyder with Robert and Renée Belfer take the view that despite current international difficulties, liberal democracy based on rule of law and the full panoply of human rights is by far the most successful form of social organisation yet invented. No democracies ever fight wars against each other, and no country other than the oil states and Singapore have reached the wealth of one-fourth US GDP, without adopting a thoroughgoing liberal order, including human rights. Snyder and the Belfers discuss the backlash against liberals who promote human rights by shaming.  Indeed, it is widely accepted that ‘naming and shaming’ is no longer an effective tool in the hands of Western governments who wish to exert pressure on governments in other parts of the world to curb abuses of rights. In the era of populist politics of Donald Trump and Vladimir Putin, resistance to shamers, who are seen as overbearing, alien, decadent, elitist, and cosmopolitan, is a global trend. Snyder and the Belfers make the point that shaming is a potentially very powerful weapon that can easily backfire in the hands of the wielder. Human rights are so important that they need to be promoted effectively, not jeopardized by the unintended consequences of shaming.

Jack Snyder defines shaming in the context of human rights advocacy. . Personal shame implies a defective personal trait that may be difficult to remediate. Group shame distinguishes between routine social practices with low cultural importance as opposed to expressions of culture that are important to the group’s fundamental identity.   It is emotionally charged public criticism that denounces or humiliates human rights violators and their abettors in a way that targets the essence of an individual’s identity.  Shaming normally involves verbal characterizations of behavior as ‘shameful’ or ‘inhumane’, but simply naming violations for which amnesty is legally forbidden (genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity) can be considered inherently shaming.

Human rights advocates continue to use shaming as a central tool despite recognizing its declining effectiveness. Shame is indeed a potent motivator, but its effects are often counterproductive for this purpose. Especially when wielded by cultural outsiders in ways that appear to condemn local social practices, shaming is likely to produce anger, resistance, backlash, and deviance from outgroup norms, or denial and evasion. Shaming can easily be interpreted as a show of contempt, which risks triggering fears for the autonomy and security of the group. In these circumstances, established religious and elite networks can employ traditional normative counter-narratives to recruit a popular base for resistance. If this counter-mobilization becomes entrenched in mass social movements, popular ideology, and enduring institutions, the unintended consequences of shaming may leave human rights advocates farther from their goal.

To be effective, criticism should:- 

  • be respectful; 
  • be focused on the deed rather than a possibly irremediable character flaw; 
  • be aimed at repairing the social rift;
  • be forceful reminders of principled standards; 
  •  be directed to everyone, not just those at risk of misbehavior;
  • come from insiders to the social group, or outsiders who are widely respected and seen as sympathetic;  
  • compare standards with their own prior performance, not shamed by comparison to neighbours and rivals;
  • not insist on using the language of legalism and universalism; 
  • acknowledge the validity of local normative systems;
  • use generic language of respect and fairness that travels across normative systems; 
  • reserve legal talk to subject matter where outsiders have patently legitimate standing, such as respect for legal due process as a condition of doing international business.
  • advance compliance standards not as moral or even legal imperatives but as technical advice for succeeding at a task. 

Ruling circles in developing countries who are sceptical about human rights are nonetheless keen to gain wealth, technological sophistication, advanced medical services, and other desirable trappings of modernity, many of which flow from advanced liberal democracies and the global capitalist system that liberal states run. States with rights compliance shortfalls tend to be much more enthusiastic about the looser ‘rights-based approach’ of the UN Sustainable Development Goals, which loosely link good governance targets and indicators to tangible development assistance. This removes human rights advocacy from the realm of shaming and locates it nearer to management consulting.  Most violations of international law seem to stem from incapacity. Sometimes fixing organisational and technical problems can facilitate rights compliance. In cases that lack a favourable setting for human rights shaming, performance indicators might be more usefully designed as constructive diagnostics for institutional reform than as tools for shaming.

Kristen Neff believes that self-compassion has three core components—kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness—and the fierce and tender aspect of each has an important role to play in the social justice movement. Kindness provides warmth, love, and understanding when we’re hurting from the pain of injustice but also spurs us to be brave and courageous as we try to correct it. Common humanity helps us feel connected to others as we acknowledge that oppression harms everyone, and also empowers us as we bond with others in the struggle for equality. Mindfulness allows us to turn toward and be present with the pain of discrimination and also provides the clarity needed to call it out

Finally, the credibility of human rights as a standard for social behaviour depends on how attractive and dynamic the liberal international order is. It also depends in part on whether people can see themselves and their identity group fitting into that order successfully. This means that a top priority for promoting human rights is restoring the stability of the liberal order and tailoring rights initiatives to the prevailing conditions in places where abuses are occurring. The social psychology of emotion suggests that transnational shaming is unlikely to make a constructive contribution to those efforts.

3  Rights to ecosystem services

Biodiversity and healthy ecosystems are key for enjoying a broad range of human rights, including those for food and health. In turn, exercising human rights, such as public participation and access to information, can foster stronger action for conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems. People in rural areas who directly depend on biodiversity for their survival are exceptionally vulnerable to limitations in access to biodiversity and biodiversity loss. Understanding and acting upon synergies between biodiversity and human rights can play a key role in the transformations required for sustainability in line with the 2030 Agenda, including achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (Fig 4).

Fig 4 Ecosystem services

The human rights based approach (HRBA) to ecosystem services provides the legal ground and principles to empower boys, girls, men and women to claim their human rights as rights holders, and to increase the capacity of those who are obliged to respect, promote, protect and fulfil those rights as duty bearers. Application of the HRBA in its development to cooperate with people living in poverty entails a focus on both what is aimed to be achieved, through standards in human rights treaties and laws, and how to do it, based on the human rights principles of non-discrimination, participation, transparency and accountability. 

States, as the main duty bearers of human rights, have the obligations to Respect (i.e. not violate the right to freedom of opinion and expression which is a challenge, for example, for rural people dependent on local biodiversity that live far away from cities and the courts); Protect (i.e. implement laws and mechanisms that prevent violations of biodiversity and ecosystem-related rights by state and non-state actors), and Fulfil (i.e. progressive measures that further the realisation of rights to education, health and culture until they become a reality, which is closely related to continued access to biodiversity for food and medicinal uses for many communities that directly depend on ecosystems for their livelihood). 

Diversity of cultures have evolved by peoples’ close interaction with the natural environment as the basic source of all sustenance: biodiversity has and is providing food, medicine, clothing, shelter, and all other material needs, as well as of physical, psychological, and spiritual well-being. People have developed detailed local knowledge of plants, animals, and ecological processes, and therefore also contributed to the shaping and preservation of the cultural landscape. This is the background for why indigenous peoples and local communities often contribute effectively to the sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity, and must become active defenders of environmental rights. Poor and marginalised people are often prone to be more vulnerable to the negative impacts and effects of deteriorating ecosystems in lack of alternative income, livelihoods and information. Human rights may have individual as well as collective dimensions. For example, the cultural rights of indigenous peoples entail elders transmitting ecological knowledge, including the intrinsic and cultural values, to younger generations, which in turn contribute to safeguarding the biodiversity to which their culture is linked. The universality, interrelatedness, interdependency and indivisibility of all human rights are also principles of HRBA. One of the benefits of using HRBA in policies and programmes that embrace the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services, is that they specify the rights and responsibilities of actors building on extensively agreed norms as well as interpretations of human rights systems. Many state constitutions also include human rights and relevant provisions for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems.

4  Human rights approach to governance

The Goals and visions of the 2030 Agenda are agreed at global level, but a large part of their implementation takes place locally. To make things work, we need all levels.  The bold decisions required to achieve the SDGs can only be carried through when those who are governed feel included and understood by those who govern. SDG 16 calls for effective institutions at all levels. One determinant of effectiveness is the way institutions work together across levels.

Reference sheets have been provided to facilitate coordination and integration of biodiversity conservation with key sectors at USAID by using a common format to present the interests of these sectors and opportunities for integration through collaboration, co-funding or single sector funds. These sheets are intended to be used throughout the program cycle by 

environment and non-environment officers alike (Fig. 5).

Fig 5 Biodiversity integration reference sheet

Laws and policies for conserving and sustainable management of biodiversity and ecosystems are complementary to human rights instruments. One of the means to contribute to biodiversity protection is to provide effective mechanisms for defenders of biodiversity and ecosystems, either to individuals or collectively such as to indigenous peoples or local communities living in areas under exploitation by others, to exercise their civil and political rights without fear of persecution. Examples of these cases include the right to access biodiversity-related information as the basis for the rights of women, men, girls and boys to be able to participate meaningfully in public consultations concerning environmental impact assessments or spatial planning in rural or urban settings.  The right to freedom of opinion and expression is also exercised when denouncing cases of non-compliance with biodiversity regulations by the extractive industry (e.g. mining, forest or oil extraction). Civil society organisations play an important role in facilitating the public participation of communities as well as expressing the concerns of the affected peoples in national, regional and global fora. In practice, important challenges exist in the institutions needed for guaranteeing the rights of environmental and land rights defenders who play a key role in protecting a diverse range of biodiversity and ecosystems. Those opposing large-scale projects with significant impact on ecosystems and on-site biodiversity conservation may face risks to their personal integrity and even their lives. The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders has said that those working on land rights and natural resources are the second-largest group of defenders at risk of being killed. 

Besides civil and political rights, exercising economic, social and cultural rights can also benefit biodiversity and ecosystems. The customary rights of farmers and indigenous people and their traditional knowledge such as local conservation, sustainable use of plants and animals including genetic resources and natural resource management, are often overlooked and should be acknowledged in decision-making processes. Weak institutions, ineffective environmental legislation, unclear accountability, poor transparency and a lack of public access and participation are usually the main causes behind the undermining of important ecosystem services, and the inability to guarantee access to important natural resources and biodiversity. By applying the HRBA, when supporting the strengthening of institutions and governance, organisations such as Sida can actively promote the work to protect biodiversity, and to promote people’s right to healthy ecosystems and natural resources.

Human rights underpin all the SDGs and contribute to fulfilling the SDGs related to ecosystems and biodiversity, like life on land and life below water. The SDGs related to ecosystems and biodiversity, in turn, provide means to exercise the human rights related SDGs, like zero hunger, good health and wellbeing as well as clean water and sanitation. The UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) recognizes the importance of biodiversity integration in sectoral and cross-sectoral plans, programmes and policies and national decision-making, as well as the contributions of indigenous peoples and local communities and their knowledge, innovations and practices, to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Human rights is implicitly mentioned in the CBD and its protocols in relation to access, fair and equitable sharing of the benefits of genetic resources held by indigenous peoples and local communities. 

Examples of questions to improve integration of human rights and biodiversity are: 

• Is the programme or policy taking into account the opportunities and challenges for environmental and human rights defenders, both for men and women, working on biodiversity-related matters to freely exercise their rights individually and collectively without any fear? 

• Is the programme or policy identifying and supporting right holders such as local farmers, elders and women who may have a specific contribution to biodiversity and ecosystems services such as to agrobiodiversity or cultural services? 

• Are targeted measures being considered in the programme or policy to enhance the protection of marginalised people living in vulnerable situations such as those lacking formal legal land and resource rights, and those most affected by the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services owing to their direct dependence on them for their livelihoods?  The erosion of nature, the extinction of species and the loss of biological diversity at unprecedented rates severely threatens human rights for present and future generations.

The loss of global biodiversity is having and will continue to have devastating effects on a wide range of human rights for decades to come. This report is a stark reminder that we can simply not enjoy our basic human rights to life, health, food and safe water without a healthy environment.  Failing to protect biodiversity can constitute a violation of the right to a healthy environment, a right that is legally recognised by 155 States. The protection of biological diversity is indispensable to realise the right to available, accessible, sustainable and nutritious food. Industrial agriculture being one of the main culprit of biodiversity decline, it is vital to have effective and balanced policies to protect ecosystems’ health while producing sufficient nutritious food for all.

From pollination to photosynthesis, all humans depend on healthy ecosystems. But the world’s poorest communities, indigenous peoples, farmers and fishermen are particularly vulnerable to the negative impact of changes in climate, biodiversity and ecosystem functions.

As the devastating impacts of pollution and climate change accelerate, it becomes essential to use every tool available, including the effective regulation of businesses, to address these planetary challenges,” said the members of the UN Working Group on human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises. However, they said, it is also vital that as urgent action is taken to protect the rest of nature, those actions respect and protect human rights.

In the past, conservation actions such as new parks and renewable energy efforts have violated the rights of Indigenous peoples and local communities. Using a rights-based approach, as the IPBES report recommends, will prevent these kinds of violations in the future.  As most of the world’s biodiversity hotspots overlap with indigenous peoples’ territories, protecting their rights over these territories is an imperative.  States have already reached agreements to combat the causes of biodiversity loss, which include habitat destruction, illegal poaching, logging and fishing, over-exploitation of lands, pesticides and other agrochemicals, pollution and climate change. But now urgent action is still needed to implement legal and institutional frameworks to protect biodiversity and all of the human rights that depend on healthy ecosystems. Governments should ensure public information and participation in biodiversity-related decisions and provide access to effective remedies.

5 The Law of Help

Human rights and freedoms are guaranteed by rules, which both aim to constrain a community and provide the necessary help for society to operate within the rules of society and remain sustainable. It was in the fifth volume of Modern Painters, published in 1860, that John Ruskin identified ‘help’ as ‘the highest and first law of the universe, which expressed hospitality, altruism, compassion, kindness and charity as the other names of life.  He moved from the study of paintings to plants, animals, and humans, thereby drawing together the different objects of study with which he had been preoccupied for seventeen years, from the first to the last volume of Modern Painters.  Ruskin rationalised his actions with the concept of composition.  For him It meant simply, putting several things together so as to make one thing out of them; the nature and goodness of which they all have a share in producing.  “It is the essence of composition that everything should be in a determined place, perform an intended part, and act in that part advantageously for everything that is connected with it. Composition, understood in this pure sense, is the type, in the arts of mankind, of the Providential government of the world”.  His model was a tree. Whereas a branch can be taken away without harming a tree, a limb cannot be removed without doing harm to an animal, and so Ruskin reasoned, ‘intensity of life is also intensity of helpfulness, completeness of depending of each part on all the rest. The ceasing of this help is what we call corruption; and in proportion to the perfectness of the help, is the dreadfulness of the loss’. He positioned ‘help’ against ‘separation’ and delineated something like a social policy in which ‘government and co-operation are in all things and eternally the rights and freedoms of helpfulness, maintaining the laws of life . Anarchy and competition, eternally, and in all things, are the laws of death. If we don’t value nature, if we continue to be species-selfish, we’re almost sure to deprive future generations, and likely even our future selves, of a great good; and that good is not merely the commodity use of nature, but includes practical goods like virtue, as well as the experiences of awe and wonder arising from interacting with nature. 

6  Internet References


Human rights biodiversity and ecosystems

Why protect nature?

Backlash against rights shaming emotions

Self Compassion and mindfulness

Self Compassion and shame

Human influences on evolution

 Why do we need to protect biodiversity

Human Rights Here And Now

John Ruskin’s Politics and Natural Law

The Law of Help

Ruskin’s ecological vision (1843-1886)

Comrade Ruskin

Does Law Create Freedom

Goodnss in Nature

Place-based Self Education

Tuesday, February 8th, 2022

1 Social Equity

Fig 1 The Vitruvian man

The Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci (Fig 1) depicts a man in two superimposed positions, with his arms apart, and legs both together and apart. His whole body is inscribed within a circle and square. The drawing is based on the notion of ideal human proportions derived from Euclidean geometry as applied to architecture by the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius in Book III of his treatise, De Architectura. Vitruvius described the human figure as being the principal source of proportion within the classical geometric schematics of architecture.  In short, da Vinci showed the human male body encased in Euclidean forms: the square, the rectangle, and the circle.  It stands for the concept that the ideal human form should be the basis for scale and proportion in the buildings where humans lived and worked. Vitruvian Man’s message is that our physical animal self is the measure of the ordered world we now describe as ‘The West’.  The model draws inspiration from Renaissance polymaths like Leonardo Da Vinci, who worked across disciplinary boundaries in pursuit of deeper knowledge through self-learning. 

Western culture, or Western civilization, is a term used to refer to the cultures of people of European origin and their descendants. It comprises the broad heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs (such as religious beliefs) and specific artifacts and technologies as shared within the Western sphere of influence. The term “Western” and “The West” are often used in contrast to the East, which defines the Asian, African, Native American or Arab nations.  

Societies of The West are geared to consuming goods and services. The emphasis is laid on gratifying spontaneous desires increasing year on year, rather than fulfilling basic needs in a steady state of supply and demand. The West’s model, however, is not sustainable, and especially not when copied globally.  The East-West contrast is sometimes criticized as relativistic. In some ways it has grown out of use, or has been transformed or clarified to fit more precise uses. Though it is in direct descent from academic Orientalism and Occidentalism, the changing usage of the distinction “East-West” has come to be useful as a means to identify important cultural similarities and differences that have to be addressed.  This is because tomorrow’s adults of all nations will have to solve existential global crises: especially the precarity of life on Earth.  Radical changes in society are needed for transforming to sustainability in ways that are socially just, peaceful and ecologically sustainable. In particular, social equity has to become the central feature of a syllabus of radical hope for learning to be fair and impartial in the distribution of Earth’s resources.                                                                              . 

Regarding inequalities in wealth, the distribution in the West is not uniform (Fig 2).  Europe stands as the most equal of all regions, with the top 10% receiving 35% of income in 2019. This can be largely explained by public investments in education and health (i.e. by predistribution policies), financed by a fair amount of taxes (redistribution mechanisms).  In contrast, the share of the top 10% in the US increased from 34% to 45% between 1980 and 2019. Half of the American population was shut from pretax economic growth.  

Latin America and the Middle East stand as the world’s most unequal regions, with the top 10% of the income distribution capturing respectively 54% and 56% of the average national income.

Fig 2  Global inequalities (Inequality Transparency Index).

To be clear, “equity” and “equality” are terms that are often used interchangeably, and to a large extent, they have similar meanings. The difference is one of nuance: while equality can be converted into a mathematical measure in which equal parts are identical in size or number, equity is a more flexible measure allowing for equivalency while not demanding sameness.  Equivalency, not sameness, is the essence of individualised equitable learning and its applications. This requires education to embrace a wider equity beyond traditional ecological sustainability.  In particular it has to include issues such as gender, race discrimination and sectarianism, which are problems for everyone to work on together across cultural and ecological boundares to hit 2030 targets for social equity. 

Social equity is impartiality, fairness and justice for all people in social policy.  It takes into account systemic inequalities to ensure everyone in a community has access to the same opportunities and outcomes. Equity of all kinds acknowledges that inequalities exist and works to eliminate them.  It is therefore the task of educators at all levels to present these changes as international targets for the 2030 Sustainable Development Strategy.  In particular,  instructors and institutions have a duty to point students towards efficacious actions they can take and groups they can join.  Social equity is the starting point, which includes not just equitable access to programs and services but the unhindered ability to engage in the political process, locally, nationally and internationally.  Thinking globally is important because it exposes people to new perspectives and things they have never known.  It means realizing that there are other ways to do even everyday things.  

 At the core of place-based education is the need for more equitable learning environments for all students.  These should be environments where students are seen, valued, and heard. In  such environments learning is designed with and for students as humans and individuals. It also means arranging equitable educational and economic opportunities for every learner to create their own body of knowledge to live sustainably.  This is deep and complex work to develop a radical syllabus. but it should be at the core of why people choose to become teachers and mentors. Utilizing the community served by the school as an outdoor laboratory is one way to do this. 

The first attempt to produce an equitable bottom up learning model was ’Rescue Mission Planet Earth’.  This is a syllabus of radical hope, youth-led and published by an international group, consisting of thousands of young people, from over 100 countries, who were invited to the 1992 Rio Environment Summit.  The core element of the syllabus is its use of poster pages, each illustrating an issue addressed in Agenda 21. The production team envisaged the syllabus would develop as a youth-led global network of communities as a democratic network for self-learning.  The modern approach would be to network locally and globally using digital whiteboards to compare and contrast place-based learning.

Place-based learning,  or place-based education, is a practical pedagogy that makes ‘place’ an educational resource. The place can be anything: a playground, trees in the street, kitchen garden, museum, arboretum, science center, parks, etc. It not only involves being in the place physically, but also using the place effectively, and all its elements in the learning process. In a school context, this involves utilizing the outdoors or places in the vicinity of the school to accomplish the curriculum goals.  Acting locally begins with a survey of the good and bad things in the community. Place itself actually acquires meaning through an action plan which works to improve the bad things and celebrate the good things. Through this methodology, communities forge identity even as they mobilise against threats to their well being.  A learning model  is the Green Guide, a UK spin off from Rescue Mission.  It is an example of how young people can become leaders by engaging with local plans for sustainable economic development.  

2 The cultural ecology pedagogy

From the 1990s place-based education has developed under the headings of ‘pedagogy of place’, ‘place-based learning’, transformative place-based learning (Fig 1), ‘experiential education’, ‘’community-based education’, education for sustainability, environmental education or more rarely, service learning,  The term place-based education was coined in the early 1990s by Laurie Lane-Zucker of The Orion Society and John Elder of Middlebury College.  It refers to those forms of pedagogy that seek to connect learning to the local ecological, cultural, and historical contexts in which schooling itself takes place.  It follows that a school committed to place-based education  should provide a route for learners to have a part to play in developing the syllabus and applying it to local governance.  In  this respect place-based learning challenges all educators to reflect on the relationship between the kind of education they promote and the kind of places they inhabit and leave behind for future generations.   In particular, C.A. Bowers advocated a critical pedagogy of place that acknowledged our enmeshment in cultural ecology and the resulting need for this to figure in school curricula.  Cultural ecology is the study of the adaptation of a culture to a specific environment and how changes in that environment lead to changes in that specific culture.  Cultural ecologists study how humans in their society and through specific cultures, interact with the larger environment.

In 2003, David Greenwood (formerly Grunewald) introduced and defined the term “Critical Pedagogy of Place.” In the years since, the general ideas of critical pedagogy of place have been incorporated into many critiques of place-based, land-based, and environmental education  According to this pedagogy students often lose what place-based educators call their “sense of place” through focusing too quickly or exclusively on national or global issues. This is not to say that international and domestic issues are peripheral to place-based education, but that students should first have a grounding in the history, culture and ecology of their surrounding environment before moving on to broader subjects. The salient objective is that place-based education seeks to help communities through employing students and school staff in solving community problems. Place-based education differs from conventional text and classroom-based education in that it understands students’ local community as one of the primary resources for learning. Thus, place-based education promotes learning that is rooted in what is local.  This is the unique history, environment, culture, economy, literature, and art of a particular place, that defines the students’ own “place” or immediate neighborhood, town or community, with a reference to the bigger global climate change syllabus (Fig 3).

Fig 3 Concept map of transformative place-based learning

Place-based education is always interdisciplinary. It aligns with several popular pedagogies, including thematic, hands-on, or project-based learning, and  always begins with topics or issues from the local community . In his introduction to ‘Place-Based Education: Connecting Classrooms and Community’, David Sobel describes the context within which place-based education was developed,

In an increasingly globalized world, there are often pressures for communities and regions to subordinate themselves to the dominant economic models and to devalue their local cultural identity, traditions and history in preference to a flashily marketed homogeneity. Furthermore, at a time when industrial pollution, biodiversity/habitat loss, and aquifer depletion are becoming widespread and acute, such pressures often exacerbate the problems by encouraging unsustainable patterns of consumption and land use, weakening familial and community relationships that are deeply tied to the local environment. A process of disintegration occurs as basic connections to the land and communities become less resilient and less able to deal with the dislocations that globalization and ecological deterioration bring about. A community’s health—human and more-than-human—suffers.

Sobel’s path to a sustainable existence must start with a fundamental reimagining of the ethical, economic, political and spiritual foundations upon which society is based, and this process needs to occur within the context of a deep local knowledge of place. The solutions to many of our ecological problems lie in an approach that celebrates, empowers and nurtures the cultural, artistic, historical and spiritual resources of each local community and region, and champions their ability to bring those resources to bear on the healing of nature and community.  Schools and other educational institutions can and should play a central role in this process, but for the most part they do not. Indeed, they have often contributed to the problem by educating young people to be, in David Orr’s words, ‘mobile, rootless and autistic toward their places.’ A significant transformation of education might begin with the effort to learn how events and processes close to home relate to regional, national, and global forces and events, leading to a new understanding of ecological stewardship and community. This supports the propagation of an enlightened localism—a local/global dialectic that is sensitive to broader ecological and social relationships at the same time as it strengthens and deepens people’s sense of community and land.

Place-based education might be characterized as the pedagogy of community, the reintegration of the individual into her homeground and the restoration of the essential links between a person and the place where she lives. Place-based education challenges the meaning of education by asking seemingly simple questions: Where am I? What is the nature of this place? What sustains this community? It often employs a process of re-storying, whereby students are asked to respond creatively to stories of their homeground so that, in time, they are able to position themselves, imaginatively and actually, within the continuum of nature and culture in that place. They become a part of the community, rather than a passive observer of it.

3 Ecodharma

Ecodharma is a relatively new concept in place-based education.  Its meaning is by no means fixed because the term combines some of the cultural teachings of Buddhism and related spiritual traditions (dharma) with ecology or ecological concerns (eco).  Within this Buddhist perspective ecodharma it is a subset of cultural ecology.   In this respect, the Jade Buddha Temple in Shanghai has adopted the framework of cultural ecology to serve Chinese socialist society.  Thereby the monks express their devotion to the living planet through charity and community service, based on the modern ideology of Humanistic Buddhism, aiding the poor, caring about the aged, helping the disabled, and so on.  Delivering Buddhist charity is the central task of the urban temple, which advocates that giving should be the everlasting theme for human society.

The Sanskrit root of dharma is drh, meaning wear, that which is worn, that which protects and lends charm and dignity to life. Therefore, ecodharma is not something outside of ourselves, something we can buy. It is an intrinsic way of being that guides us to fulfill our human potential. Perhaps the most direct approach to dharma is for a teacher to encourage students to ask themselves regularly, “Why am I here? What is my purpose? What is the reason for my existence?  When was the last time I experienced authentic connections with others, truly felt that I belonged, and was surrounded by people who really understood me?  This is a new form of teaching, ‘Mindful Teaching’, that is shaped by Buddhist philosophy and its age-old dharma practices, creating a schooling culture of ‘mindful belonging’.

Even though many of us experience the power of deep connection much less often than we would like, this sense of true belonging is always available to us, regardless of our outside circumstances. Feelings of alienation, isolation, and loneliness can be reduced by simply choosing to foster feelings of unity and connectedness. The starting point is to become one with your local ecosystem to answer the bigger questions of true belonging, ’Where am I? and What do I love about being in this place?  The hope is that seeking answers to these questions will help learners explore their interdependence with all living things, treat themselves more kindly, and create richer connections with others to build a deeper-felt sense of belonging. Using mindfulness and meditation, the aim is to find true connection with others and greater compassion toward oneself, thinking and acting supported by the three pillars of ecodharma (Fig 4).

Fig 4 Three pillars of ecodharma

Mindfulness is a type of meditation in which the focus is on being intensely aware of what you’re sensing and feeling in the moment, without interpretation or judgment. Practicing mindfulness involves breathing methods, guided imagery, and other practices to relax the body and mind and help reduce stress.  Resilience is the process of effectively coping with adversity.  It’s about bouncing back from difficulties and the more mindfulness meditation you practice, the more resilient your brain becomes.

Compassionate wise communities or communal “village” life empowers individuals in their personal journey and creates much needed energy for collective strategic action. Unless we are part of faith-based groups, in modern times, we usually don’t appreciate the importance of communities at all.  

Strategic collective action asks us to study and deeply investigate the external root causes of our societal injustices, distractions and arrogance as well what comes in the way of us reclaiming our collective power. Without strategic action on the part of community leaders and members, it is not possible to create spaces where inner and outer transformations can take place.  If the actions are limited to building of meditation centers, which do not pay attention to ecological footprint, racial dynamics, participation in democracy, the actions are only supporting a lop-sided individual transformation. The transformation isn’t holistic without looking at systemic and institutional causes of our pain.

For most of us, it is not possible to engage deeply in “inner” psycho-spiritual practices and “outer” strategic actions over a long-term without a community background.  We need to focus on building wise and skillful communities that enable both of our inner and outer work. This community can be the school. Teacher/trainers promoting ecodharma as an educational framework have to begin with an understanding of their personal role in its practical outcomes because we are losing environmental features and promote it as a global educational movement towards a safe, healthy and just planet. The desired outcomes are joy, harmony, kindness and justice. 

Ecodharma also advocates intergenerational justice for future human generations that will suffer because of environmental inaction of previous generations. As a holistic educational framework it also includes inter-species justice between the human and the greator -than -human natural world, as well as harmony and justice between different castes, races, classes, genders and human ideologies.

Malcolm S. Knowles identifies several key aspects of ecodharma learning that are self-directed, rather than managed by others. In this definition he argues that individuals determine their own learning needs and how to achieve their individual goals. Self-directed learners identify the resources needed to learn and be successful, and develop their own strategies for doing so. In this context, self-directed learners also evaluate the extent to which they achieved their own learning goals.  In this respect, Knowles defines self-directed learning as a process in which individuals take the initiative, with or without the help of others, in diagnosing their learning needs.  They, formulate their own  learning goals, identifying human and material resources for learning, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes.  They formulate their own  learning goals, identifying human and material resources for learning, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes within a well-being economy with equity   A well-being economy takes a sustainable approach to economic development that addresses the social, environmental and health needs of a population by prioritizing wellbeing over exponential growth. It values indicators of wealth beyond gross domestic product, such as equity, happiness and environmental outcomes and can provide society with a more holistic and balanced approach to development. This is the Buddhist heritage of ecodharma.

4 Caring for wildlife in communities

Coping with the loss of someone or something you love is one of life’s biggest challenges. Often, the pain of loss can feel overwhelming. You may experience all kinds of difficult and unexpected emotions, from shock or anger to disbelief, guilt, and profound sadness. The pain of grief can also disrupt your physical health, making it difficult to sleep, eat, or even think straight. These are normal reactions to significant loss. But while there is no right or wrong way to grieve, there are healthy ways to cope with the pain that, in time, can ease your sadness and help you come to terms with your loss, find new meaning, and move on with your life.  Caring for wildlife in communities is the outcome of ecological thinking to cope with the grief of the loss of species and ecosystems that enrich our world.  It is a human behavioral response to the grief of losing part of a loved environment, which is crucial for restoring human wellbeing and prosperity. The caring response is conservation: a management plan  that acknowledges the interdependence between people and nature, vital for food production, maintaining clean air and water, and sustaining biodiversity in a changing climate.

Skies darkened by smoke! Streets flooded by rain!  People are now experiencing local extremes of weather and, “eco-anxiety” or “climate dread” have entered our vernacular. But they are more than catchphrases. Climate-induced anxiety is a real set of emotions that can require attention and treatment and for some, those emotions are a call to action.  Also known as eco-distress or climate-anxiety, eco-anxiety was defined by the American Psychological Association in 2017 as “a chronic fear of environmental doom”. This is a new social dimension for teaching applied ecology.

 “Ecology isn’t just about global warming, recycling, and solar power—and also not just to do with everyday relationships between humans and nonhumans. It has to do with love, loss, despair, and compassion. It has to do with depression and psychosis. It has to do with capitalism and with what might exist after capitalism. It has to do with amazement, open-mindedness, and wonder. It has to do with doubt, confusion, and skepticism. It has to do with concepts of space and time. It has to do with consciousness and awareness. It has to do with ideology and critique. It has to do with reading and writing. It has to do with race, class, and gender. It has to do with sexuality. It has to do with society. It has to do with coexistence. — Timothy Morton, The Ecological Thought.

In other words an environmental interactive platform is required for communication and exchange of scientific expertise and experiences.  It is important for people to collaborate in  new research activities, combining the expertise of different stakeholders (researchers and scholars, teachers, policy officials, NGOs, etc.) in a framework to learn about environmental citizenship.

In the UK’s first Strategy for Sustainable Development, the idea of a ‘citizen’s environmental network’ was proposed as a way of helping communities make action plans and tell others about their ideas and achievements. Factors that limit action are that community-led environmental improvements are often limited by the lack of:

  • a logical management structure which links objectives with grass roots operations, particularly with regards  monitoring the success in achieving practical targets;
    • a recording system for maintaining year on year momentum, which also has an integral reporting system for  keeping all members of the community up to date;
    • access to standard methods and procedures which have proved successful in the past;
    • the inadequacies of paper systems to centralise management, recording, and communication.

To remove these limitations requires the national collection of feedback from communities who are developing ideas and methods (see case histories in the Appendix)

One of the key figures in shaping a modern educational movement to end the lonely, often desperate, isolation of Homo  sapiens from other species was the American Joseph Wood Krutch (1893-1971). “We are all in this together,” he  concluded in 1949, not long after he finished writing a biography of Henry Thoreau. Once a rather melancholic humanist,  Krutch now became a kind of  pantheist or ethical mystic, caught up in the joy of belonging to “something greater than one’s self.”.  

5  Imagination in place

A UK outcome of these deliberations was the provision of opportunities to encourage the development of the cross curricular theme of imagination in place, defined as a secular breviary for meditations on ecological meanings’  The theme was actually the centerpiece of  the Going Green Directorate, which grew from a 1994 gathering of school teachers and academics in Wales who came together under the Chairmanship of Denis Bellamy, head of the Department of Zoology in the University of Wale to consider how schools could help their communities move towards sustainable development. The meeting was sponsored by the Countryside Council for Wales, Dyfed County Council,The Conservation Management System Consortium is now CMSi: Talgarth. and the local Texaco oil refinery. This partnership was based in the St Clears Teacher’s Resource Centre. From here, a successful award-winning pilot was led by Pembrokeshire schools to create and evaluate a system of neighbourhood environmental appraisals, and  network the local findings from school to school.

The scheme adopted the acronym SCAN (schools and communities Agenda 21 network). SCAN’s aim was to help teachers create systems of appraisal within the National Curriculum to evaluate ‘place’ (historical, geographical, biological, and notional). The practical objective was to address environmental issues which emerged from the appraisals in the context of their community’s Local Authority Agenda 21. Therefore the objective of the GGD was to promote environmental appraisal and the long-term management of neighbourhood historical assets, green spaces and home and community services to promulgate a sense of place, improve quality of life, reduce environmental impacts of day to day living, and enhance biodiversity.  A comprehensive mind map dealing with planning and operating appraisals and management plans was produced by the GGD.  

6 Internet References

Rescue Mission

Green Guide

Teaching for Understanding

Place-based Learning

Managing the Biosphere

ECO-learning Networks

Community Action Plans





Appendix 1

Active case studies for  place-based Learning

Weelsby (Grimsby, UK)

Garw Valley: (South Wales, UK)

Tredegar: (South Wales, UK)

Deep Place

Two Indian Towns: (Indian State of State of Gujarat)

Youth-led Rural Change

Indian State of Tamil Nadu:

Tribal Islands

Panna Biosphere Reserve: (Indian State of Madhya Pradesh)

National Green Corps

Kuala Selangor: (Malaysia)

Integrating social inclusion and sustainability science

Rimba Raya Biodiversity Reserve: (Borneo, Indonesia)

Natural Capital Partners

Rhos Llawr Cwrt National Nature Reserve (Wales: UK)

Brownsea Island

Skomer Island

The Levant: A Syllabus Of Radical Hope

A logic for making community action plans

Managing the Biosphere

Wednesday, November 17th, 2021

“biosphere community reserves

Radical changes in society are needed for responding to climate change, and for transforming to sustainability. It is increasingly clear that people everywhere will need to learn to transform to sustainability in ways that are socially just, peaceful and ecologically sustainable.  ‘T-learning’ refers to transformative, transgressive learning in times of climate change.  Yet, we know little about the type of transformative, transgressive learning (t-learning) that enables such change

1 Conserving the human condition

Fig 1 Conserving the human condition for political involvement in combating climate change.

In her book The Human Condition in 1958, Hannah Arendt wrote of how humanity had become alienated from ancient Greek understandings of the human condition (vita activa).  For the Greeks, a democratic culture was based on three kinds of activity: labour (animal laborans), work (homo faber), and politics (zoon politikos). Arendt believed the modern understanding of the human condition had become stranded on, and oriented towards, only one kind of activity, namely, labour and its instrumental reasoning.  In philosophy, instrumental rationality refers to the pursuit of a particular end goal, by any means necessary.  For example, the most efficient or economical approach to achieve a goal might also be an approach that causes environmental degradation or could be detrimental to human life.

The Greeks understood all matters of biological life and death to abide in the realm of labour. In this framework, labour is the relationship a person has to her body and the bodily functions of others. It is “the activity which corresponds to the biological process of the human body, whose spontaneous growth, metabolism, and eventual decay are bound to the vital necessities produced and fed into the human life process by labour.”  Labouring is simply what we do to survive.

Labour operates on and addresses the world of animal needs: placenta, shit, food, drink, shelter, pleasure, productivity, and abundance.  

Arendt calls these needs the “burden of biological life, weighing down and eventually consuming the specifically human life-span between birth and death” on Earth.  Labour is what humans do to maintain, enhance, and reproduce life. 

This natality is its key action, whether represented via Mother Earth nurturing life or animal mothers relentlessly pushing out their offspring.  Labour operates in the realm of intimate biological functions and family relations.

In contrast, work begins with an idea and the worker attempts to materialize it, in a durable form. In doing so the worker assembles an ‘artificial’ world of things, distinctly different from all natural surroundings.  Labour makes biological beings whereas work is based on creativity of objects.  It fabricates the world within which the products of workers are used by the so-called working class. The ultimate purpose of work is to offer mortals a dwelling place more permanent and more stable than themselves.  Work gives collective meaning to what we do. When we work to produce something we both put something into, and leave something lasting, in the world. Already in the 1950s, Arendt was worried that capitalist consumption would transform work into sheer labour. If we all make only to consume, we leave nothing in the world, and we lose that shared sense of the world. 

But neither labour nor work defines the full human condition. They are the grounds on which humans can express their presence through a third form of activity, namely, political action in the public sphere.  Political action is the opposite of labour. Labour focuses on the inner necessities of biological life and its intimate desires and passion.  its sphere of action is the home.  Politics defines the public sphere of action which operates openly in a shared common world where the exchange of ideas occurs directly between people without the intermediary of made things.  Political activity is valued not because it may lead to agreement or to a shared conception of the good, but because it promotes the idea of active citizenship, based on the value and importance of civic engagement and collective deliberation about all matters affecting the community. 

Labour, work and politics come together to define humanity as the manager of the biosphere, where the objectives are to to create a democratically organised dwelling place for living sustainably in the biosphere.  Therefore, the three categories of behaviour that define the human condition are the core elements of a balanced pedagogy to conserve the human condition for political action from an educational baseline where everyone is a global citizen (Fig 1 ). 

2 Biosphere Reserves

The term ‘biosphere’ was invented by geologist Eduard Suess in 1875, which he defined as “the place on Earth’s surface where life dwells”. Therefore the concept has a geological origin.  The biosphere’s ecological context comes from the 1920s, preceding the 1935 introduction of the term “ecosystem” by Arthur Tansley (see ecology history). Vladimir Vernadsky defined ecology as the science of the biosphere. As a part of nature in all that we do, we are managers of the biosphere, from clearing a forest to grow a field of beans, to building an apartment block to house people migrating from countryside to city (Fig 2). 

Fig 2  The biosphere as a managed ecosystem.

The concept of ‘biosphere reserve’ emerged from the programme of UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere (MAB) of which it constitutes an essential part. Biosphere reserves are ‘learning places for sustainable development’.  Each site promotes solutions reconciling the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use. Biosphere reserves are nominated by national governments and remain under the sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are located.

The primary function of Biosphere Reserves (BRs) is the conservation of plant and animal genetic resources, which involves research on ecosystem management for conservation, the training of specialists, and environmental education. ‘Biosphere Reserve’ is an interdisciplinary concept for integrating astronomy, geophysics, meteorology, biogeography, evolution, geology, geochemistry and hydrology.  BRs are being progressively integrated into a world-wide network of ‘representative ecological areas’ that is intended to cover all major representative natural and semi-natural ecosystems.

Some argue that BRs hold the key to a much needed paradigm shift toward education for sustainability.   At a minimum, they begin to address some of the concerns listed in Agenda 21.  These concerns include “the deterioration of the ecosystems on which we depend for our well-being […], social and political tension, [and] a perpetuation of disparities between and within nations”  

The flexibility and versatility of BRs is that they essentially incubators for sustainable development and scientific research into the natural world.  When the Canadian Tsá Tué Biosphere Reserve was established in 2016, covering a total surface area of about 9.3 million hectares, it became the first BR to be completely managed by Indigenous people.  In fact, the direct involvement of the local population in the management of BRs, together with the maintenance of research and monitoring activities in them, constitute the best guarantee for long-term conservation of genetic resources on a world-wide basis.  

3  Transboundary BRs 

Transboundary BRs have been established to recognize and strengthen coordinated management of socio-ecosystems across borders: political, organizational, linguistic, cultural breaks, and removal of barriers to the management of shared ecosystems and the economic development of indigenous populations. They promote the coordinated management of these ecosystems and define their place in a common history and culture. 

A Transboundary BR is first and foremost a cooperation between established Biosphere Reserves.  UNESCO formally designates it as a Transboundary BR if certain conditions are met: a political agreement between the states concerned, a common zoning that promotes the spatialization of conservation and development issues, the identification of local and national partners and the establishment of a governance mechanism.  One of the strengths of the Transboundary Biosphere Reserve is that it provides a flexible and adaptive conservation working environment.

There are currently 727 biosphere reserves in 131 countries, including 22 transboundary sites, that belong to the World Network of Biosphere Reserves. There is no legal basis underpinning these designations but they are a way to increase collaboration among governments to advance conservation efforts and associated sustainable practices.

4  Biosphere Community Reserves

Biosphere Community Reserves are places where local residents and businesses have joined forces to;

  • Help to conserve the natural resources of their community
  • Support the economy to benefit local people and nature
  • Promote cultural heritage and local products
  • Contribute to the health and well being of the community
  • Develop knowledge and understanding 
  • Promote research.
  • Establish an ECO-learning centre

They conform to community boundaries and are overseen by locally elected councils. Biosphere community learning includes a range of community place-based and outreach learning opportunities, managed and delivered by local people to define scenescapes. Scenescapes are:

… shared activities, 

…features that define a neighbourhood or place

…the presentations of locally generated aesthetics of a place.  

Development of scenescapes was an aim, emanating from the UK sustainable development plan, to bring together people of different ages and backgrounds to tackle community issues and communicate ideas and achievements in citizen’s environmental networks.

The UK Government bases its vision of sustainable development on four broad objectives:

  • Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone;
  • Effective protection of the environment;
  • Prudent use of natural resources; and
  • Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment.

The UK Sustainable Development Strategy recognises that everybody has the right to a healthy, clean and safe environment. This can be achieved by reducing pollution, poverty, poor housing and unemployment. These are local issues that fall within Biosphere Community Reserves and by tackling them locally, a Biosphere Community Reserve contributes to the alleviation of global environmental threats, such as climate change and poor air quality, which must be reduced to protect human and environmental health. 

The UK Strategy is a catalyst for change. Its ten guiding principles are summarised as:

  • putting people at the centre;
  • taking a long term perspective;
  • taking account of costs and benefits;
  • creating an open and supportive economic system;
  • combating poverty and social exclusion;
  • respecting environmental limits;
  • the precautionary principle;
  • using scientific knowledge;
  • participation and access to justice;
  • making the polluter pay.

In respect of all these matters they function as systems for handling data and information to produce knowledge about the development of the local community.  The objective is to enhance the human condition by providing opportunities to integrate labour with work and politics in a Biosphere Community Reserve System  (Fig 3).

Fig 3  The main elements in a Biosphere Community

There are six main elements in a Biosphere Community Reserve System.  These are:

(i)  Biosphere Community Reserve

A Biosphere Community Reserve is a delineable area of the earth’s terrestrial surface.  It  can encompass all attributes of the biosphere immediately above or below this surface. including the near-surface climate, the soil, terrain forms and the surface hydrology.

(ii)  Public sphere

The public sphere is an area in social life where individuals can come together to freely discuss and identify societal problems, and through that discussion influence political action for the public good.  In this context, a community council is a voluntary organisation run by local residents to act on behalf of an area of land which they occupy. As the most local tier of elected representation, community councils play an important role in local democracy.  They are composed of people who care about their community and want to make it a better place to live.  As well as representing the community to the local authority, community councils facilitate a wide range of activities which promote the well-being of their communities. They bring local people together to help make things happen, and protect and promote the identity of their community. They advise, petition, influence and advocate numerous causes and cases of concern on behalf of their communities. In other words the objectives of a community council are to devise or promote projects, such as economic development and environmental improvements that enhance the human condition.

(iii)  Conservation management hub

A conservation management hub is a local organisation, such as a country park or a nature reserve that ECO-learning centres can turn to for examples of professional conservation planning, where the community can see a plan in action. The management hub is a template for learning about the principles of conservation management that can be applied through ECO-learning Centres to ensure that the Biosphere Community Reserve  is managed wisely by focussing key actions, to protect and where possible enhance the environment and facilities.  In this respect the plan chosen as an exemplar should have been produced following a number of site surveys; a review of available ecological, historical and other information; and liaison with appropriate bodies. It should focus upon achieving a realistic balance, between a range of issues that include:  nature conservation, maintaining and enhancing the historical landscape and its cultural value, providing appropriate facilities for public recreation and enjoyment and encouraging opportunities for education in all aspects of the site’s ecology, history, culture and landscape. 

(iv) Local History Hub

In the United Kingdom (and particularly in England and Wales) the term ‘county record office’ usually refers to a local authority repository, also called county archives.  Such repositories employ specialist staff to administer and conserve the historic and the semi-current records of the parent body. They usually also preserve written materials from a great variety of independent local organisations, churches and schools, prominent families and their estates, businesses, solicitors’ offices and ordinary private individuals.

(v)  ECO-learning Centre

An Eco-learning centre is a growing phenomenon, which encourages young people to engage with their local environment by allowing them the opportunity to actively protect it. The activities begin in the classroom, expand to the school and eventually foster change in the community at large. It is a practical expression of the Earth Charter, an international declaration of fundamental values and principles for building a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century. The Charter seeks to inspire in all peoples a sense of global interdependence and shared responsibility for the well-being of the human family, the greater community of life, and future generations It calls upon humanity to help create a global partnership at a critical juncture in history. 

The Earth Charter’s ethical vision proposes that environmental protection, human rights, equitable human development, and peace are interdependent and indivisible. The Charter attempts to provide a new framework for thinking about and addressing these issues in schools and the communities they serve.

(vi)  Scenescapes

According to Daniel Silver and Terry Clark, “scenes” can be defined in three ways: 

  • a shared activity, such as a city’s “jazz scene” or “coffee scene”; 
  • features that define a neighborhood or place, such as the “SoHo scene” (in many large cities) or the “San Francisco scene”; 
  • “the aesthetic meaning of a place”, which has more to do with personal and social sense of place and place attachment as seen in how people activate places and assign meaning to them. They are therefore places of learning about place differentiation, place making, and landscape studies (Fig 4).

Fig 4 Recording theKing Edward Street Scenescape: Green Garw Project

5 Green Garw

In 1993, Groundwork Bridgend in South Wales was commissioned by the Garw Valley Community Council, with the support of the Local Authority, (then Ogwr Borough Council and now Bridgend County Borough Council) to produce a strategy for environmental improvement in the Garw Valley. After consultation with the community, the Garw Valley Green Strategy was formulated.  This is an early example of regenerative thinking and an effort to shape an equitable future in a former coalfield community.  Green Garw was new way of imagining our place within a rapidly changing world. The aim was to produce a Valley wide ‘regenerative’ mindset that understands the world as a series of reciprocal relationships, where humans and ecosystems rely on one another for health, and shape their connections with one another.

Groundwork Bridgend and its Garw Valley Partners secured over £2 million from the European Regional Development Fund and from the Millennium Commission to fund the Strategy’s programme of improvements. These are the Community Route linking the valley to Bridgend County Borough’s Access-for-All network of routes, the installation of a valley passenger line and the improvement of eight sites in the villages of Blaengarw, Pontycymer, Pontyrhyl, Llangeinor and Betws.

In 1997 eight schools in the Garw Valley, and 15 teachers, participated in Green Garw, a project initiated by the Garw Community Council in partnership with Groundwork Bridgend,  to engage schools and the families they served with local plans for sustainable development. 

This emerged in schools as a standardised procedure to set up eco-learning centres to collect information about what is good and bad about the local environment and what should be done to improve the bad things.  

The other dimension of these, bottom up  local environmental appraisals was to carry out a  colour survey of the valley. 

Colours have a most profound influence on the way we perceive the world. Different colors are connected to different feelings and emotions.They present a meaning beyond language and logic. Using colors is a remarkable way to alert the sense of our inner world.  The imaginative experience of artistic reality, which is acquired in seeking aesthetic value, is no less concrete or less conclusive than that which is acquired in scientific research.  

Vision is the first sense that we use to obtain a perception of space.  It affects the observer’s state of mind, as well as the understanding of the place from where the observation is made. Colour is present in each and every one of the elements of a landscape, contributing, on the one hand, to give it a particular character, and on the other, to establish the chromatic synthesis of a landscape image.  

The outcomes of both kinds of appraisal were published as the Garw Green Guide. The Guide is intended to be a useful data reference to assist the community and its organisations in a unique environmental improvement programme.  It is an important milestone in the history of school/community interactions, a demonstration showing how schools can assist the community they serve in a unique programme of environmental improvements.  

At the time of the Garw appraisals, the Natural Economy Research Unit (NERU) was set up in the National Museum at Cardiff with EU funding to pilot the idea of establishing school/ community ECO-centres throughout Wales.  NERU incorporated the Green Guide into this programme of work, known as SCAN, the Schools and Communities Agenda 21 Network, which was created and evaluated by Pembrokeshire schools

6 Youth-led environmental appraisals

The concept of Biosphere Communify Reserves, with its emphasis on conservation management after grassroots environmental appraisals, is an example of transformative, transgressive learning to support global citizenship. A global citizen is someone who is aware of and understands the wider world and their place in it. They take an active role in their community and work with others to make our planet more peaceful, sustainable and fairer. Global citizenship helps young people to build their own understanding of world events and encourages them to become involved in acting locally.  This was the goal of the first youth-led conservation management project that was a response to ’Rescue Mission Planet Earth’,a radical syllabus for hope  published by an international group, consisting of thousands of young people, from over 100 countries, who were invited to the 1992 Rio Environment Summit.  They envisaged a global network of schools and the communities they served as a democratic eco-learning system. The objective was for them, as members of local communities, to participate in the management of relationships between culture and ecology, according to their skills and vision of the future, in order to live sustainably.  Its latest manifestation is the programme adopted by the The Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Education for Peace (MGIEP) and Sustainable Development[1], UNESCO’s category-1 research institute.  This is a youth-led, technology-enabled, crowdsourced Global Monitoring Framework for any community-centered issue and learning (which can also be in line with any of the seventeen UN Sustainable Development Goals. 

The project, which aligns with the ‘Rethinking Youth’ programme at MGIEP, is in partnership with 4th Wheel Social Impact, a youth-led organization working towards strategizing, monitoring and evaluating social programs across India. This is also a collaborative effort with the T-Learning network, a collective of initiatives world-wide exploring the modes of learning for sustainability.

Like Green Garw, the Indian project is structured in three phases: Phase 1 involves understanding the existing context; Phase 2 consists of consultations and workshops for a preliminary data collection to understand the population and community issues; and Phase 3 involves using the insights gained to build a technological platform (or app) for sustained monitoring of management and learning.  The Rethinking Youth programme  is represented as a system (Fig 5) and Green Garw as a common protocol (Fig 6). 

Fig 5 Crowd sourcing system

Fig 6 Global model for community/youth-led environmental appraisals.

“Global bad things you can become aware of but can do nothing about.  Local bad things you can become aware of and can do something about”.

7 Internet References

Social change in rural Gujarat

Local Crowd Sourcing Campaign 1

Local crowd sourcing campaign 2

Mother Earth

The human condition

New Beginnings

 The Human Condition; Magritte

Colout in the Forest

Reshaping the Human Condition

Colour Picker

Digital bridge

Global Citizenship

School/Community ECO-learning Networks

Sunday, October 31st, 2021

A procedure to establish a network of school-based Eco-learning Centres to help families served by the schools meet local sustainability targets.


ECO-Learning: the system

ECO-Learning: the conservation management system

1 A Syllabus for Radical Hope

Fig 1 A young person’s syllabus of radical hope produced by ‘children of the world’. for lIving sustainably 

This project is a response to ’Rescue Mission Planet Earth’,a radical syllabus for hope  published by an international group, consisting of thousands of young people, from over 100 countries, who were invited to the 1992 Rio Environment Summit (Fig 1).  They envisaged a global network of schools and the communities they served as a democratic eco-learning system. The objective was for them, as members of local communities, to participate in the management of relationships between culture and ecology, according to their skills and vision of the future, in order to live sustainably.  These visions and skills are an expression of individualised learning, which involves providing different tasks and support for each learner at the individual level because all learners have different needs.  Therefore each learner requires a personal approach to learning so that the activities that learners undertake and the pace at which they progress through the syllabus, will be more effective.

Fig 2 The school/community elements that come together to establish a procedure for organising a local eco-learning system

In this respect, a radical hope syllabus is a living project of individualised learning, and anyone interested in adding a topic or concept can contribute to the syllabus, which is a blend of local action and reflection. In particular, instructors should be continuously reflecting on their teaching practices and using their observations to update how they engage with their students (Fig 2).  It is in this sense that eco-learning is radical, and assembling a syllabus is an act of radical hope because it is  aimed at a fundamental, root-level, transformation mindset in which a better future takes shape.   Out of the students’ critical refusal to abide by the limitations of uniform, school-based learning, which forces people out of community-thinking, comes a lifelong “learning-by-doing” experience, which utilizes communities and neighbourhoods as extensions of the classroom.  

The educational objective of Rescue Mission is to link schools with the communities they serve to help produce a local version of Agenda 21 (LA21).  LA21 was an important outcome from Rio; a voluntary process of local community consultation to produce long term action plans for sustainable development. It is about the need for local and national conservation management and encompasses awareness raising, capacity building, community participation, leadership training and the formation of local partnerships.  LA21 has now been augmented with Agenda 2030, which sets out a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all.

2  The Procedure to establish a school/community eco-learning system.

An eco-learning system serves as a resource for anyone interested in environmental issues and assembling a personal body of knowledge about how to live sustainably and participate in plans for the survival of future generations. It provides a new way of framing and thinking about how individuals or groups might formally or informally learn about current environmental issues and how people, collectively and/or individually, might respond to them.  From the environmentalist’s perspective, ecolearning means guiding the relations of humankind with a fast changing global environment. It surged in popular and scientific interest during the 1960-1970s, with the rising of conservation movements, but has yet to produce a matching education system.

The procedure to establish a school/community ECO-learning network is based on the Green Guide (Fig 3) produced by schools of the Garw Valley, in South Wales that was initiated by the Valley’s Community Council functioning as a social learning hub.

Fig 3 The Garw Green Guide

Each participating school has to set up an online ECO-learning centre (ELC) to display connections between culture and ecology from a local perspective.  Eco-Learning Centres are a development of the idea of community museums of culture and ecology, which originated in France, the concept being developed by Georges Henri Rivière and Hugues de Varine, who coined the term ‘ecomusée’ in 1971.  A community ELC is a voluntary organisation focusing on the identity of a place.  ELCs built on an IT platform naturally encourage social interactions of individuals, families and schools with local plans for sustainable development. 

Taking the idea of community museums, an ELC acts as a clearing house of information about global warming. Therefore clearinghouses collect, develop, and disseminate materials on climate change suitable for informing the local communities about the current state of climate change (Fig 4).  This could help provide focal points for information on issues such as energy efficiency, energy savings, forestry, agriculture, environmentally sound housing and transportation efficiency. Information exchanges would also provide a means to share technical knowledge and expertise. 

Fig 4 User-friendly graphic adapted from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Climate Change (IPCC) IPPC Special Report on Global Warming for a school/community information clearing house 

The establishment of an ELC proceeds in 4 phases.  Phase 1 is about creating a local environmental surveillance system by bringing together schools , communities, neighbouhoods and the Parish or Community Council.  In phase 2 the schools organise a good and bad sevey to articulate what people like or don’t like about where they live. Phase 3 is about what should be done to improve the bad things; who should do it and what they should do.  In other words, the objective of Phase 3 is for communities joining with their schools to participate in designing a regenerative sustainable development plan for their locality.

Phase 4 is for individuals, schools and communities to produce a radical syllabus of hope to promote lifelong learning about how individuals can create a personal body of knowledge to live sustainably.  The themes, topics and concepts of Rescue Mission, illustrated with pictures and poems produced by the Rescue mission collective, may be taken as the model of such a syllabus

These four phases define the relationship of an ELC with its community, its governance, its biophysical heritage and its plans for the future (Fig 5).

 Fig 5 The ECO-learning system

3 Focusing on local materials and colour

Through colour, emotions and senses as a whole are able to give strength and respect in the relationship between humankind and environment, proposing practical and spiritual meaning  to ‘sustainability’.  It is not by chance that the most recent planning developments on sustainability focus upon the central role of humans and their psycho-physical equilibrium with good and bad environments.The practical viewpoint is that if a place is to become attractive for settlement  care must be taken to ensure the environment is pleasant to look at, homogenous and coordinated with its ecosystem services. For example, in the post-coal mining valleys of South Wales many would say the varied greens, soft greys and russet browns, enriched with the sudden blaze of the heather and gorse in the late summer, should not be marred by the garish reds, yellows and blues found in the paintwork.  Therefore, an important outcome of Phase 2 could be a colour-based environmental appraisals; applying arts reasoning to explain sustainability.The adoption of colour to describe nature and the environment dates back to the Middle Ages, when nature was seen to be coloured like the four elements defined by the ancient Greeks: the mat black of earth, the dark blue of air, the brilliant red of fire, the greyish cobalt blue of water.  In this context, colour presents a sense of place.

Green is now always the colour of renewable energies, zero-mile food, holidays, innovation and smart technologies. Therefore, we can represent ecology with infinite colour scales and colour in the environment becomes an essential scenic element defining the local and wide meaning of place.  Green is not simply devoted to the renewal of old forms in new products, but mainly used as a pre-project element able to set a dialogue with senses and mind through the meanings of materials, culture, form and human interaction. 

4 Prosperity

Global surveys illustrate the depth of anxiety many young peop[e are now feeling about climate. change.  Today, there are 1.2 billion young people aged 15 to 24 years, accounting for 16 per cent of the global population. The active engagement of youth in sustainable development efforts is central to achieving sustainable, inclusive and stable societies by the 2030 target date.  Their participation is necessary to avert the worst threats and challenges to sustainable development, including the impacts of climate change, unemployment, poverty, gender inequality, conflict, and migration.  We know exactly how the physical limits of our planet are being reached and exactly why we cannot go on as we have before and yet, collectively, we seem unable to reach crucial decisions for our future in a timely way. It can be argued that the definition of prosperity, which we have long assimilated with the idea of material wealth, may be preventing us from imagining a future that meets essential human aspirations without straining our planet to the breaking point. In other words, redefining prosperity is a necessary and urgent task.  The need to discuss a new economic alignment is evident from surveys of well being (Fig 6) where achieving monetary affluence comes well down on the list of what makes for a good life.  

Fig 6 What Americans think of the American Dream. 

It is impossible to look at many environmental indicators without worrying that an economy measured by GDP is on borrowed time. This is why it is important for local environmental appraisals to concentrate on natural capital, the resources, systems and services nature provides for human economic activity, such as food, air purification, nutrient cycling, materials and minerals. Poorly managed natural capital is a liability in any economy. Also, the sense of social fracture in so many places, leads to questions about the stability and relevance of social capital, which depends on the accumulated trust within communities and institutions and the ability of a community to be more than the sum of its individual actions.

The manifesto of an ELC defines prosperity as something to be wished for beyond material pleasures. 

It transcends material concerns. 

It resides in the quality of our lives and in the health and happiness of our families.

It is present in the strength of our relationships and our trust in the community. 

It is evidenced by our satisfaction at work and our sense of shared meaning and purpose. 

It hangs on our potential to participate fully in the life of society because it consists in our ability to flourish as human beings within the ecological limits of a finite planet. The challenge for our society is to create the conditions under which this is possible. 

It is the most most important urgent educational task of our times.

The Green Guide system of environmental appraisal was pioneered in the South Wales Garw Valley in 1997-8.  It is now available, together with Rescue Mission, to everyone through the Green Garw Web Site managed by International Classrooms On Line,

Personal Understandings Found In Nature

Thursday, October 7th, 2021

An Integrative syllabus for learning how to live  sustainably

1 Integrative Curricula

“An integrative curriculum is intended to help young people organize and integrate their present experiences so that they might be carried forward for the benefit of both self and the common good. As such, this kind of curriculum has historically been proposed as a preferred design for a general education intended for all students, particularly in programs meant to promote democratic living and learning. An integrative curriculum involves arrangements and methods that engage students in identifying self and social issues, critiquing the status of society and the common good, planning for new learning experiences, accessing resources, researching and solving problems, communicating ideas, collaborating with others, and reflecting on the meaning and value of experiences. Crucial to the use of the term “integrative” is the idea that individuals do their own integrating. This definition distinguishes an integrative curriculum from “integrated” curriculum organizations, such as “multidisciplinary” or “interdisciplinary,” in which teachers and others correlate content and skills from two or more subject areas with the intention of illustrating connections among them or making their content more accessible and engaging for students”.

“Use of an integrative approach has a long history tied to progressive and democratic arrangements in elementary and secondary schools. These include CORE Programs, the experience-centered approach to curriculum, and many problem-centered courses. At present, some integrated approaches are enjoying popularity, as are methods like project- and problem-centered activities that are historically associated with integrative approaches. However, the student-centered, democratic philosophy that partly defines an integrative curriculum approach has waned under pressure from bureaucratic subject-based standards, tests, and prescriptive curriculum plans”.

James A. Beane

Published online: 17 December 2020.

A radical hope syllabus is an online collection of educational materials for those interested in producing a curriculum for adapting to climate change and inequalities in sharing Earth’s limited material resources.  The idea of a radical hope syllabus is the product of the two-day “Radical Hope” conference held in Germany in July 2017 by the The Rachel Carson Centre. The conference brought scholars from around the world to exchange ideas about the role of ‘hope’ in addressing environmental issues.  However, there is no generally acceptable curriculum because living sustainably is very much the application of an individual’s personal understandings found in nature.  

How do you maintain hope, in the face of extreme desperation, which is essential for indevidual human survival?.  The core idea of hope, as it applies to environmental issues, is an expansive term.    People may define it in their own way according to how they visualise ‘the good life’.  In this context, “radical hope” is a conscious effort to be informed about the environment as a personalised educational thread of life long learning.  The target is to break free from the mantra of monetary growth to build a better society that puts the wellbeing of all at its centre.  It is a bottom-up process of individualised theme-based conceptual understanding, not a top down uniform, mass produced examinable subject.

2 Theme-based Learning 

“A school using theme-based learning will make no mention of ‘math’ or ‘science’ on their daily schedule, because those skills are embedded into the themes”. Paul Romani

Research into how the brain works and the psychology of learning shows that gaining a personal understanding of a body of knowledge is a process of integration. When a student sees how facts and ideas connect with one another across subjects, they are constructing new meanings of inclusivity.  By communicating that meaning, the learning is further reinforced. This is why theme-based learning is so effective particularly to understand interactions between environment and society to answer questions such as; How do individuals and groups respond to large changes in society, like climate change, globalization, mass migration, diversity, inclusion, and ageing populations? What are effective ways to motivate people to contribute to a sustainable society? 

However there is institutional bias against thematic learning from all levels (Fig 1)

Fig 1 Six themes proposed by a UK  Labour Party minister of education for reform of primary education, but never implemented.

In education, a theme is a unit of teaching and learning at the level of pillars or principles, whereby big ideas selected from several subjects are connected together and integrated under that theme so that understanding has a real-world application in the way that it takes place.  For example, if you want to study environmental pollution, you have to consider not just scientific matters, but also social issues. Environmental pollution becomes a theme and theme-based learners are empowered to apply their personal understandings to make real-life changes to themselves, their community and perhaps even the world. 

The structure of a theme is created by assembling a layered mind map, a cluster of related ideas connected to a central overarching concept. Each layer of ideas branches out from the next. The farther from the centre you go, the more specific the ideas get. The closer to the center, the more general the ideas are.

Themes are composed of general ideas called topics.  These are the main organising principles of a theme. Pollution could be a general topic within the theme of industrialisation.  Four topics relevant to the topic of pollution are:  abandoned industrial sites, acceptable risk level, accidental release of organisms, acid rain. These particular topics are taken from a list of several hundred named topics compiled by the General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus.  A topic is composed of a group of narrower ideas called concepts

Research into the ways in which students go about the task of reading an academic article shows the decision to seek meaning (deep learning) or to reproduce the information provided (surface learning) was a consequence of how they had interpreted the task, the context and how they viewed the content.  

The surface approach involves routine use of rote memorisation, while the deep approach makes connections with previous knowledge and carrying out logical reasoning. The main characteristic of a surface approach is not memorisation per se, but the routine and unreflective use of rote memorisation simply to reproduce the material presented by the teacher, usually for an exam.  Students being anxious are more likely to adopt a surface approach, while those who see the content as interesting adopt a deep approach to the reading. Each approach to learning and studying is associated with characteristic forms of motivation – deep with intrinsic motivation and interest in the subject matter; – surface with extrinsic motivation and fear of failure; and – strategic with achievement in exams as the motivation. Analysing students’ perceptions of the teaching-learning environment has found that a deep approach appeared to be influenced by ‘mentored teaching’ and ‘freedom in learning’, while heavy workloads and fact-based assessment procedures induced a surface approach.  Good lectures were described by students in terms of seven main categories – level, pace, structure, clarity, explanation, enthusiasm, and empathy.  Of these, it is the last three that are the most likely to evoke and support a deep approach to learning. These categories represent some of the general indicators of good teaching from the students’ perspective.

Another important aspect of thematic teaching is the generative topic.  Generative topics propose topics and concepts for discussion which invite students to relate the topic to other topics, concepts and aspects of their personal life. A good way to start a generative topic is asking a basic question. For example, “how does something in nature affect my life, and how would my life be different if it were removed?” Asking questions is key to a good generative topic. In the theme “environment and society” there are many topics connected to other disciplines that have a direct connection to the student’s life. Thought provoking questions invite deep thinking about the subject or create new patterns of thinking. 

Generative topics have several key features.  They are central to one or more themes or topics.  They are interesting to students and are accessible.  There are multiple connections between them and the students experience.  For example, “industrialisation” is a generative topic that can connect with all aspects of climate change through the concept of its cost to society. The existence of generative topic means that a theme can be entered through any one of its many topics, an opportunity that can be seen when a theme is at the head of a mind map (Figs 10 & 11),

International Classrooms On Line is testing Google Blogger as a resource for students to build and communicate personal bodies of knowledge based on interconnected themes (Fig 2).  Each theme has pages that define it and topics that amplify it (blogs). Topics are augmented with concepts (posts to the blog) and data (comments added to the posts).

Fig 2  The educational theme ‘Belonging, Place and Change’.

3 Natural Economy

“It’s not where you take things from, it’s where you take them to.

Jean-Luc Godard, film director.

The theme of ‘economy of nature’ was used for the first time in the 17th century to denote how God governed his Creation—Nature.   Linnaeus’ Oeconomia Naturae (1749) is both the culmination of a great tradition of Christian natural theology, and the starting point of a new science, the one that Ernst Haeckel named ‘ecology’ when, in 1866, he described nature as a balanced, harmonious equilibrium.  

In the 17th century the idea of nature as an economy had no particular connection with human economic practices. The theologian Thomas Burnet in ‘The Sacred Theory of the Earth, referred to the “Oeconomy of nature” as the “well ordering of the great Family of living Creatures”, an order of divine origin.  Linnaeus, in his ‘Specimen Academicum de Oeconomia Naturae., visualised this divine order as being self-organized, exhibiting a dynamic balance of births and deaths, so linking function with the purpose of living things. In this context, Linnaeus believed the application of science to nature was to understand species as resources to be used by humans as they saw fit. The first step in this direction was to classify all life forms and twelve years later he published ‘Species Plantarum’, the work which is now internationally accepted as the starting point of modern scientific nomenclature.  The classification system Linnaeus invented is important because it led to the use of an international binomial nomenclature to identify each species. Once the system was adopted, scientists could communicate about the position of individual species in the human economy without the use of misleading common names.  His Scandinavian journeys were intended to be not so much natural history forays as preliminary assessments of Swedish species as resources with potential commercial possibilities, even though they did not really produce much of value in this way. Consequently his travel journals cover a much wider field of interest than botany and zoology and are written in a simple direct way.  For example, in his journey through Lapland he reached the copper smelter at Adelfors on 23 May 1741, where he noticed that the junipers looked like “trimmed cypresses”, which he attributed to smoke from the blast furnaces. Workers and residents at Adelfors  complained about its toxicity.   Linnaeus saw the distorted growth forms of the cypresses  had commercial possibilities in gardening.

“After 1 mile we arrived at Berga. From here on the road was slightly better. Burned-out patches of woodland (Svedjor, which Smilanders call fallor or lyckor) now began to be seen on both sides of the road, mostly green with an excellent rye. We saw some of the burn-beating today, since the best time to burn is after a long drought when rain is expected, so that the wood will burn well and the ashes be retained by the rain.

It is remarkable to see how these fires can chase away clouds and rain -every child can tell that when the sky eventually becomes over-cast after a long dry period and if the farmers start to burn their lands, then the sky clears up, the clouds disappear, and torrents of rain fall in the next parish, while the burners receive nothing”.

This entry in his journal is one of the first records of chemical pollution from industrialisation and one of the last descriptions of a European closed cycle system of swidden agriculture.  Swiddening, also known as shifting cultivation, refers to a technique of rotational farming in which poor land is cleared for cultivation (normally by fire) and then left to regenerate after a few years. Governments worldwide have long sought to eradicate swidden agriculture, which is often pejoratively called ‘slash-and-burn’, due to a mistaken belief that it is a driver of deforestation.  It is now being regarded as an iconic practice of closed cycle agriculture.

In 1734, just two years after his famous Lapland journey, Carl Linnaeus took a six-week, 520-mile trip through Dalacarlia (.Dalarna). Seven students accompanied him describing the topography, botany, geology, and economic conditions of the region. The trip started in Falun and proceeded northwest to Rättvik, Boda, Orsa, Mora, Älvdalen, Särna, and Grövelsjön to Röros (in Norway) and back through Särna, Lima, Malung, Nås, and Borlänge to Falun. Linnaeus was only 27 years old at the time and had not yet completed his education. Each student was assigned tasks to perform along the way by the Societas Itineraria Reuterholmiana Club’s president, Linnaeus. It fell to Claes Sohlberg among other things to record information on the soil and mineral springs, and to Ingel Fahlstedt to describe the mineralogy. The copper mine at Falun and the limestone quarries in the vicinity of Boda were described. Oil seeps and tar deposits were noted in the Boda quarries. Near Orsa they visited the sandstone quarries where grindstones were made and he commented on the lung disease of the quarrymen. They stayed in Röros and visited the copper mines. On the way back part of the trip was by boat on the Västerdalälvaen. Linnaeus displayed his acuteness of observation of geological features along the way and was particularly aware of the economic possibilities especially for mining. He recognized the difference in topography between the glacial material and the underlying bed-rock (pre-Cambrian). Several of his ideas on geological processes were formulated while on this journey.

The Falun mine is one of the great wonders of Sweden but as horrible as hell itself… Soot and darkness surrounded them on all sides. Stones, gravel, corrosive vitriol, drips, smoke, fumes, heat, dust, were everywhere.

An understanding of the facts recorded in his diaries required cross curricular analysis.

Today, natural economy is a themed topic which defines a type of economy in which money is not used in the transfer of resources among people. It is a system of allocating resources through direct bartering, entitlement by law, or sharing out according to traditional custom. In the more complex forms of natural economy, some goods may act as a referent for fair bartering, but generally currency plays only a small role in allocating resources.  This approach to the sharing economy has come to signify exchanging services or skills. For instance, one can repair someone’s computer but instead of paying cash for this service, the payment will be an exchange, say for, some free yoga classes. Someone needing gardening advice might offer payment in painting skills, or having German lessons in exchange for surf lessons…  The possibilities are infinite.   

People have shared assets for thousands of years, but with the advent of technology and the use of big data, it is easier for asset owners and the ones seeking those assets to find each other. This concept is also referred to as the Sharing Economy, Collaborative Economy, Collaborative Consumption, or Peer Economy. Contemporary sharing economies are hybrids because they allow individuals and groups to earn money from their underused or idle assets by renting them out. These definitions point the way to a new human ordering of sharing and equalities.  Natural economy was used as the title for a new school subject in the Cambridge University International General Certificate of Education in the 1980s.   

As a corollary, the majority of goods produced in a system of natural economy may not be produced for the purpose of exchanging them, but for direct consumption by the producers (subsistence). As such, natural economies tend to be self-contained, where all the goods consumed are produced domestically.  Karl Marx described the Inca Empire as a natural economy because it was both isolated and based around exchange rather than profit.  The term has often been used in opposition to other forms of economy, most notably capitalism. For example, Rosa Luxemburg believed that the destruction of the natural economy was a necessary condition for the development of capitalism.  She taught that war, colonialism and unsustainable extraction of resources from nature are products of global capitalism. The result is the loss of irreplaceable natural wealth leaving people of the developing world struggling for food, water and shelter.  Luxemburg criticised Marx for not having paid enough attention to these external contradictions in economic growth. A socialist revolution was, for Luxemburg, the only way to stop the total assimilation of a natural economy of sharing into the polluting system of capitalism.   In Luxemburg’s world, pollution includes the genetic alteration within populations, the deterioration or modification of habitats, the spreading of pathogens and parasites, and competition with and replacement of native species. 

She also drew attention to the Great Divergence or European Economic Miracle.  This is the socioeconomic shift in which the Western world (i.e. Western Europe and the parts of the New World) where its people became the dominant populations by overcoming pre-modern growth constraints. The West emerged during the 19th century as the most powerful and wealthy world civilization, eclipsing Mughal India, Qing China, Korea, and Tokugawa Japan.

Fig 3  The Natural Economy: cooperating for the common good.

John Young in his book Natural Economy published in 1997 (Fig 3) asserts that a true grasp of how the economy should be constituted shows it to be a thing of harmony and beauty, all its parts cooperating for the common good, and its inbuilt laws distributing benefits equitably.  However, capitalism is the most prominent element in our current global economic system. Its main characteristic is that most of the means of production and property are privately owned by individuals and companies.  Western governments have a relatively small role in such an economy limited to management and control measures.  So a capitalist economy is a liberal economy. This means that only the free market will determine the supply, demand, and prices of the products. There is no direct government intervention other than to balance gross monopolistic practices in the economy, which is created and maintained by the workings of industrialism which generates monetary wealth from goods and services along with pollution. 

There is no doubt that we have to rethink economic growth to loosen the grip of capitalism on modern life exercised by competitive consumption.  It undergirds the incessant demand for expansion of human use of natural resources, an expansion that has already exceeded Earth’s capacity to regenerate. The economist, Keynes, believed that people whose basic economic needs had been satisfied would naturally gravitate to other, non-economic pursuits, perhaps embracing the arts and nature. A century of experience suggests that this was wishful thinking. As Raworth writes, “Reversing consumerism’s financial and cultural dominance in public and private life is set to be one of the twenty-first century’s most gripping psychological dramas.”  Transition towns are a pointer in this direction because they  are local communities attempting, proactively, to prepare for a sharing future in a warming world. Their strategy is to reduce their dependence on fossil fuels and help mitigate climate change by re-localizing production closer to home.  The aim is to create self contained functioning communities with the idea that strong neighborhood networks will help towns to weather future energy shocks. Transition towns address the issues of decarbonising energy use, climate change and economic instability by creating a strong, connected, self-sufficient community with a strong sense of place and belonging. 

Transition initiatives can range from neighbourhoods to villages and from towns to cities.  In this grassroots movement we are seeing the regrowth of natural economy.  Ambitions for an appropriate education system are essentially captured in Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4) of the 2030 Agenda, which aims to “ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all by 2030. The roadmap to achieve the education goal, adopted in 2015, provides guidance to governments and partners on how to turn commitments into action (Education 2030 Framework for Action). UNESCO is responsible for coordinating the international community to achieve this goal through partnerships, policy guidance, capacity development, monitoring and advocacy.

Governments hold the main responsibility for ensuring the right to quality education for living sustainably and the 2030 Agenda is a universal and collective commitment. But it requires political will, global and regional collaboration and the engagement of all governments, civil society, the private sector, youth, UN and other multilateral agencies to tackle educational challenges.  These systems have to be thematic inclusive, equitable and relevant to all learners.  Thematic teaching is essential to cover this range of players which have to come together under the themes of culture and ecology.  Indeed, ‘cultural ecology’ is an interdisciplinary banner to unite and mobilise educationalists who share the conviction that radical and widespread cultural change is vital to combat the climate emergency.  

The phrase cultural ecology has two literal denotations:

  • culture as ecology: where culture is determined by the dynamic interaction of humans with each other and the environment.
  • ecology as culture: where ecology is determined by the ideas, customs and behaviours of humans and how they interact with the environment.

These denotations are embedded in the theme ‘personal understandings found in nature’(Fig 4).

Fig 4  Concept mind map of a textual statement of the theme ‘personal understandings found in nature’.

3 A History Of Economic Harm

The need for a thematic approach to schooling in order to understand and manage environmental concerns emerged in the 1960s and was particularly driven by Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring and the publicity surrounding it.  Like other popular and scientific studies at the time, her book focused on the environmental harm caused by an economic sector of society, in this case it was agriculture.  The cross curricular educational theme is Personal Understandings Found In Nature and the topic is pollution. 

Fig 5 Opencast mining of coal in the UK (1975). Temple Newson National Trust Estate

Pollution is the outcome of any human behaviour that has an adverse impact on planetary wellbeing. It requires the highest attainable standard of wellbeing for human and all other beings, their social systems and ecologies, to manage it (Figs 5 & 6).

Fig 6 A sea of plastic waste.  Researchers at the University of Oldenburg in Germany are using satellite communications to combat the growing problem of plastic pollution in the North Sea.

In the 1970s, the Club of Rome identified the problems that societies would face when environmental resources were overused, depleted or harmed, and pointed towards the need for different types of policies to maintain and generate economic growth. 

In the 1980s, the World Commission on Environment and Development, chaired by Gro Harlem Brundtland, published Our Common Future, the first serious attempt to link poverty to natural resource management and the state of the environment. It defined sustainable development as ‘meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.’ The concept implied both limits to growth, and the idea of different patterns of growth, as well as introducing questions of intergenerational justice. 

In 1992, the UN Conference on Environment and Development was held in Rio de Janeiro, taking forward many themes prefigured at the UN Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972. 

The main agreement from Rio was Agenda 21, a forty-one chapter document setting out priorities, practices and costs for all economic and social sectors, and how these should relate to the environment. The principles of sustainable forms of development that encouraged minimizing harm to the environment and human health were agreed. However, progress has not been good because Agenda 21 was not a binding treaty on national governments and all are free to choose whether they adopt or ignore its principles. The Rio Summit was followed by some international successes, including the signing of the Convention on Biodiversity in 1995, the Kyoto Protocol in 1998 and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001. Ten years after Rio, progress was scrutinised at the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002, again raising the profile of sustainability, but also failing to tie governments to clear actions and timetables  Over time, the concept of sustainability has grown from an initial focus on environmental harm to include first economic and then broader social and political dimensions.

Delegates to COP 21 in Paris, on 12 December 2015, reached a landmark agreement to combat climate change and to accelerate and intensify the actions and investments needed for a sustainable low carbon future. The Paris Agreement’s central aim is to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change by keeping a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius.  Additionally, the agreement aims to increase the ability of countries to deal with the impacts of climate change and make finance flows consistent with low greenhouse gas emissions and a climate-resilient pathway. To reach these ambitious goals, appropriate mobilization and provision of financial resources, a new technology framework and enhanced capacity-building is to be put in place, thus supporting action by developing countries and the most vulnerable countries, in line with their own national objectives. The Agreement also provides for an enhanced transparency framework for action and support.  

Despite the landmark commitments made by signatories of the Paris Agreement, emissions have continued to rise globally. The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) reported that emissions rose from 50 billion tonnes in 2015 to 55 billion tonnes in 2019. While carbon output was reduced dramatically in 2020, due mainly to the impact of COVID-19, emissions only decreased to the level that will be required every single year to achieve the Paris Agreement and that’s with transport, industry and commerce almost grinding to a halt during parts of the year. The prospect of a global green recovery from COVID-19 is not materialising across the board, with some countries pouring money into the fossil fuel economy to stave off a devastating recession.

We are now facing the climate change crisis every day in  some way or another and the silo thinking behind national curricula does not help in promoting the cross curricular thematic teaching needed for understanding world development. 


BAYWATCH was initiated by Cardiff Bay Development Corporation in the late 1990s to encourage children in the coastal communities of the City of Cardiff to work with their communities in managing regenerative development.  It was a cooperative project between the Natural Economy Research Unit, Impact Trust Wales the UK Conservation Management System Consortium and the Schools in Communities Agenda 21 Network SCAN) of the National Museum of Wales.

When Paul Sanby visited the small market town of Cardiff in 1776 seeking painterly views (Fig 7), Merthyr Tydfil was just a small Welsh farming village forty miles from Cardiff up the Taff Valley.  The valley contained all of the necessary resources for a successful iron industry, namely iron ore, limestone for lining furnaces, mountain streams to provide water power and forests to supply timber for the manufacture of charcoal.  In 1759,  ironworks were established at Dowlais, a small community at the edge of Merthyr Tydfil.  Charcoal was replaced with local coal for large scale smelting.  By the 1830s the Dowlais Ironworks was the largest in the world, employing more than 5,000 people.  With the increased size of the ironworks, the size of Merthyr Tydfil soared. In 1801 a population of 7,700 was recorded, which rose to 22,000 in 1831 and to 46,000 in 1851, establishing Merthyr as by far the largest town in Wales. 

Fig 7 Cardiff from the River Taff Estuary, looking north to the southern edge of the coalfield, (1776), Paul Sanby

In the late 18th century, Cardiff’s trade was maintained by two small sloops sailing to Bristol on alternative days. It was the growth of the iron industry in the South Wales Valleys that caused Cardiff to develop as a port. In 1794, the Glamorganshire Canal was completed, linking Cardiff with Merthyr Tydfil, and in 1798 a basin was built, connecting this canal to the sea. Cardiff’s foremost landowner, the 2nd Marquess of Bute, built West Bute Dock in 1839. Two years later, the Taff Vale Railway was opened. So what had led to this transformation?

From the 1850s, coal began to replace iron as the main export of South Wale, with yearly exports reaching 2 million tonnes in 1862.  The Cardiff Coal and Shipping Exchange was built in 1888 to be used as a market floor and office building for trading in coal.  It later became a hub of the global coal trade.  The first steamship was the ‘Llandaff’ of 1865, and she was the first of a fleet that grew rapidly in the late 19th century. By 1910, there were some 250 tramp steamers owned at Cardiff. Each day, the owners would meet to arrange cargoes of coal for their ships in their opulent Coal Exchange in Mount Stuart Square. 

The coal export industry reached its peak in 1913, when 10.7 million tonnes of coal were exported through Cardiff’s docks.  A royal commission on the coal industry reported in 1919 that: “The prosperity of south Wales is entirely dependent on the export trade in coal”  This dependency was very real. The industry relied on exporting 70% of its production. The whole area, mining settlements and the docks, depended on coal. But demand was falling because other countries had developed their own industries with lower production costs.

The 1920s and 1930s were decades of economic depression and poverty in the coalfields. There were long strikes and bitter disputes between the company owners and the miners. The companies wanted to keep up their profits but often at the expense of miners’ wages and jobs.  In 1934 unemployment rates of 60% were recorded in parts of the coalfield. People started to move away. Between 1931 and 1939, 160,000 people migrated from south Wales to look for work in the new industries being developed elsewhere. The coal industry was nationalised in 1947, but did not stop the decline.  Coal was the vital fuel of the 1800s and early 1900s. But it was  much less important and had been largely replaced by other forms of energy. To modernise the industry, machines were needed instead of manual workers and many of the coal seams in south Wales weren’t suited to the use of modern mining machinery.

The Coal Exchange finally closed in 1958 and coal exports from Cardiff ended just six years later, in 1964. The Cardiff Bay Development Corporation was set up in April 1987 to regenerate the 1,100 hectares of derelict dockland as part of the British government’s Urban Development Programme to regenerate deprived areas of inner cities.  The aim was to “put Cardiff on the international map” and boost the image and economic wellbeing of the area without coal (Fig 8)

Fig 8 Cardiff Bay: Regeneration of old dockland waterfront

At present the world is not tracking towards a Paris Agreement compatible phase-out of coal. Current and planned coal power plants globally would lead to a generation increase of 3% by 2030 compared to 2010 levels. If the world follows these present trends, this would lead to cumulative emissions from coal power generation almost four times larger than what would be compatible with the Paris Agreement by 2050. 

5  Thinking Through Coal: An Integrated Syllabus

An urgent transformation is required in our values and our practices based on recognition of our global interdependence and the interconnectedness of the risks we face.  We need a new vision of cooperative and democratic action at all levels of society.  Personal understandings found in nature have to be the outcomes of a new system of thematic lifelong learning that combines planetism and wellbeing for every person on Earth.  It’s a principle that asserts that we must conserve, sustain, and make resilient the planetary and human systems on which life depends by giving priority to the wellbeing and prosperity of all.  All too often governments make commitments but fail to act on them; independent accountability is essential to ensure the monitoring and review of these commitments, together with the appropriate remedial action (Fig 9).

Fig 9 Concept diagram of 13 topics depicting the idea of transition from an expanding fossil fuel economy to one maintained by renewable energy; the target is human prosperity defined as ‘something to be wished for’.

 Children’s minds seem especially tuned to the use of metaphors and symbols. The very act of creating a work of art: a song, a play, a photograph or painting is itself a symbol of a person’s desire to capture an idea, a mood or feeling and communicate it to others. This is the essence of arts reasoning.  Graphics and artworks have the potential to increase the attractiveness, understandability, and communication power of thematic work. They can help science reach audiences that literature never will. As such, they are a tremendous asset in a time when the increased politicization of complex socio scientific issues, such as the future of food and nutrition security, necessitates the communication of science to society in ways that are accessible and engaging.  Images and symbols are used to highlight ideas and stimulate the mind to make connections.  

As an example of the power of art’s reasoning, compare Fig 5 with Fig 11.  They have the same subject matter in common i.e. large scale landscape pollution of opencast coal mining.  This is presented as a fact, e.g. the aerial photograph of part of a large rural estate (Fig 5) and an imaginative painting (Fig 10).  The latter is a monstrous, metaphorical vulture that bubbled up in the artist’s mind to explain why coal mining in India is unsustainable in a world of small-scale family farms.   

Fig 10  A Relic of Our Time: Prabhakar Pachpute (2020)

The BBC school’s digital resource package defines what is meant by the term ‘industrialisation’ and describes some of the processes involved and how it changes people’s working lives. It talks about increased food production as a prerequisite for industrialisation, and about urbanisation which usually happens alongside industrialisation. It then looks at the Industrial Revolution in Britain: how the steam engine was one key technological breakthrough leading to mass production, increased trade, better transport infrastructure and the birth of modern capitalism.  The theme Thinking Through Coal (Fig 11) is a specific local subset of the general theme of Industrialisation (Fig 12).  

Fig 11  Mind map of the theme ‘thinking through coal-Go To Interactive Map

The film touches on how industrialisation happens at different times in different parts of the world, using the countries of East Asia as an example of industrialisation due to the high tech and service industries, and countries like Brazil, Mexico and South Africa which are emerging as countries of mass production, selling to other countries.  It ends by saying industrialisation usually leads to higher wages and better living standards, but it has also been charged with causing social problems like pollution and wealth inequality. Mind maps take the story of world development, triggered by coal mining to deeper, cross curricular levels (Figs 11 &12) where they may be regarded as prototypes for art installations.

Fig 12 Mind map of ‘industrialisation-Go To Interactive Mind Map

6  Appendix

Art should be the basis of education.  No other subject is capable of giving the child not only a consciousness in which image and concept, sensation and thought, are correlated and unified, but also, at the same time, an instinctive knowledge of the laws of the universe and a habit or behavior in harmony with nature… if any type should be regarded as the ideal type, it is the artist. But there is no such thing as an artistic (aesthetic) attitude.  Every person is a special kind of artist… they are manifesting a form in which common life should take in its unfolding.”

— Education through Art, Herbart Read 

Art is a means of connecting two worlds, the visible and the invisible, the physical and the spiritual.  The area of our consciousness where culture has its roots lies in the uncontrolled mind of every individual: in the moment when it is given space to make a creative leap.  Artists, scientists and spiritual masters alike have great respect for that particular faculty of our human potential.  It is in the realization of each individuals’s intuitive creativity that everybody would agree with the statement “everyone is an artist.”

— Louwrien Wijers

7 Internet References